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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 7 | Pages 936 - 942
1 Jul 2014
Middleton C Uri O Phillips S Barmpagiannis K Higgs D Falworth M Bayley I Lambert S

Inherent disadvantages of reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs based on the Grammont concept have raised a renewed interest in less-medialised designs and techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) with the fully-constrained, less-medialised, Bayley–Walker prosthesis performed for the treatment of rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis. A total of 97 arthroplasties in 92 patients (53 women and 44 men, mean age 67 years (standard deviation (sd) 10, (49 to 85)) were retrospectively reviewed at a mean follow-up of 50 months ((sd 25) (24 to 96)). The mean Oxford shoulder score and subjective shoulder value improved from 47 (sd 9) and 24 points (sd 18) respectively before surgery to 28 (sd 11) and 61 (sd 24) points after surgery (p <  0.001). The mean pain at rest decreased from 5.3 (sd 2.8) to 1.5 (sd 2.3) (p < 0.001). The mean active forward elevation and external rotation increased from 42°(sd 30) and 9° (sd 15) respectively pre-operatively to 78° (sd 39) and 24° (sd 17) post-operatively (p < 0.001). A total of 20 patients required further surgery for complications; 13 required revision of components. No patient developed scapular notching.

The Bayley–Walker prosthesis provides reliable pain relief and reasonable functional improvement for patients with symptomatic cuff-deficient shoulders. Compared with other designs of RSA, it offers a modest improvement in forward elevation, but restores external rotation to some extent and prevents scapular notching. A longer follow-up is required to assess the survival of the prosthesis and the clinical performance over time.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:936–42.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 1 | Pages 115 - 119
1 Jan 2011
Phillips S Biant LC

Orthopaedic surgeons use a variety of instruments to help correct, treat, and heal bone disease. The development of these instruments mirrors the history of orthopaedic surgery. The history of bonesetting, the treatment and replacement of joints, and of those who performed these techniques, appears to originate deep in antiquity. Changing ideas within medicine and surgery over the last 200 years have shaped the discovery and evolution of orthopaedic instruments and of the bonesetters themselves. Advances have led to the use of computers as instruments in the navigational guidance of arthroplasty surgery, the use of robotics, the development of cordless drills and improvements in the design of blades to cut bone. Yet some of the old instruments remain; plaster of Paris bandages, the Thomas Splint, Liston’s bonecutter, Gigli’s saw, bone nibblers and Macewan’s osteotomes are still in use.

This paper presents a historical review of bonesetters and examines how orthopaedic instruments have evolved from antiquity to the 21st century.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1635 - 1640
1 Dec 2008
Spence G Phillips S Campion C Brooks R Rushton N

Carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) is more osteoconductive and more resorbable than hydroxyapatite (HA), but the underlying mode of its action is unclear. We hypothesised that increased resorption of the ceramic by osteoclasts might subsequently upregulate osteoblasts by a coupling mechanism, and sought to test this in a large animal model.

Defects were created in both the lateral femoral condyles of 12 adult sheep. Six were implanted with CHA granules bilaterally, and six with HA. Six of the animals in each group received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (0.05 mg/kg), which inhibits the function of osteoclasts, intra-operatively.

After six weeks bony ingrowth was greater in the CHA implants than in HA, but not in the animals given zoledronate. Functional osteoclasts are necessary for the enhanced osteoconduction seen in CHA compared with HA.