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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 3 | Pages 129 - 137
1 Mar 2023
Patel A Edwards TC Jones G Liddle AD Cobb J Garner A


The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score examines patient performance in relation to energy expenditure before and after knee arthroplasty. This study assesses its use in a knee arthroplasty population in comparison with the widely used Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol five-dimension index (EQ-5D), which are reported to be limited by ceiling effects.


A total of 116 patients with OKS, EQ-5D, and MET scores before, and at least six months following, unilateral primary knee arthroplasty were identified from a database. Procedures were performed by a single surgeon between 2014 and 2019 consecutively. Scores were analyzed for normality, skewness, kurtosis, and the presence of ceiling/floor effects. Concurrent validity between the MET score, OKS, and EQ-5D was assessed using Spearman’s rank.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1234 - 1239
1 Sep 2016
Yu HM Malhotra K Butler JS Patel A Sewell MD Li YZ Molloy S


Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) develop deposits in the spine which may lead to vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Our aim was to establish which spinopelvic parameters are associated with the greatest disability in patients with spinal myeloma and VCFs.

Patients and Methods

We performed a retrospective cross-sectional review of 148 consecutive patients (87 male, 61 female) with spinal myeloma and analysed correlations between spinopelvic parameters and patient-reported outcome scores. The mean age of the patients was 65.5 years (37 to 91) and the mean number of vertebrae involved was 3.7 (1 to 15).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1683 - 1692
1 Dec 2015
Patel A James SL Davies AM Botchu R

The widespread use of MRI has revolutionised the diagnostic process for spinal disorders. A typical protocol for spinal MRI includes T1 and T2 weighted sequences in both axial and sagittal planes. While such an imaging protocol is appropriate to detect pathological processes in the vast majority of patients, a number of additional sequences and advanced techniques are emerging. The purpose of the article is to discuss both established techniques that are gaining popularity in the field of spinal imaging and to introduce some of the more novel ‘advanced’ MRI sequences with examples to highlight their potential uses.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1683–92.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1170 - 1174
1 Sep 2015
Patel A Pavlou G Ahmad RA Toms A

In England and Wales more than 175 000 hip and knee arthroplasties were performed in 2012. There continues to be a steady increase in the demand for joint arthroplasty because of population demographics and improving survivorship. Inevitably though the absolute number of periprosthetic infections will probably increase with severe consequences on healthcare provision. The Department of Health and the Health Protection Agency in United Kingdom established a Surgical Site Infection surveillance service (SSISS) in 1997 to undertake surveillance of surgical site infections. In 2004 mandatory reporting was introduced for one quarter of each year. There has been a wide variation in reporting rates with variable engagement with the process. The aim of this article is to improve surgeon awareness of the process and emphasise the importance of engaging with SSISS to improve the quality and type of data submitted. In Exeter we have been improving our practice by engaging with SSISS. Orthopaedic surgeons need to take ownership of the data that are submitted to ensure these are accurate and comprehensive.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1170–4.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1076 - 1081
1 Aug 2015
Patel A Pavlou G Mújica-Mota RE Toms AD

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are recognised and proven interventions for patients with advanced arthritis. Studies to date have demonstrated a steady increase in the requirement for primary and revision procedures. Projected estimates made for the United States show that by 2030 the demand for primary TKA will grow by 673% and for revision TKA by 601% from the level in 2005. For THA the projected estimates are 174% and 137% for primary and revision surgery, respectively. The purpose of this study was to see if those predictions were similar for England and Wales using data from the National Joint Registry and the Office of National Statistics.

Analysis of data for England and Wales suggest that by 2030, the volume of primary and revision TKAs will have increased by 117% and 332%, respectively between 2012 and 2030. The data for the United States translates to a 306% cumulative rate of increase between 2012 and 2030 for revision surgery, which is similar to our predictions for England and Wales.

The predictions from the United States for primary TKA were similar to our upper limit projections. For THA, we predicted an increase of 134% and 31% for primary and revision hip surgery, respectively.

Our model has limitations, however, it highlights the economic burden of arthroplasty in the future in England and Wales as a real and unaddressed problem. This will have significant implications for the provision of health care and the management of orthopaedic services in the future.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1076–1081.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1401 - 1406
1 Nov 2008
Patel A Calfee RP Plante M Fischer SA Arcand N Born C

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a ubiquitous bacterium in both the hospital and community setting. There are two major subclassifications of MRSA, community-acquired and healthcare-acquired, each with differing pathogenicity and management. MRSA is increasingly responsible for infections in otherwise healthy, active adults. Local outbreaks affect both professional and amateur athletes and there is increasing public awareness of the issue. Health-acquired MRSA has major cost and outcome implications for patients and hospitals. The increasing prevalence and severity of MRSA means that the orthopaedic community should have a basic knowledge of the bacterium, its presentation and options for treatment.

This paper examines the evolution of MRSA, analyses the spectrum of diseases produced by this bacterium and presents current prevention and treatment strategies for orthopaedic infections from MRSA.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1380 - 1381
1 Oct 2008
Patel A Calfee R Thakur N Eberson C

Iliacus haematoma is a relatively rare condition, which may cause a local compressive neuropathy. It is usually diagnosed in adults with haemophilia or those on anticoagulation treatment and may occur after trauma. We present the case of a healthy 15-year-old boy with a femoral neuropathy due to an iliacus haematoma which resolved following conservative treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 2 | Pages 330 - 334
1 Mar 1991
Bridle S Patel A Bircher M Calvert P

We have prospectively compared the fixation of 100 intertrochanteric fractures of the proximal femur in elderly patients with random use of either a Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) or a new intramedullary device, the Gamma nail. We found no difference in operating time, blood loss, wound complications, stay in hospital, place of eventual discharge, or the patients' mobility at final review. There was no difference in failure of proximal fixation: cut-out occurred in three cases with the DHS, and twice with the Gamma nail. However, in four cases fracture of the femur occurred close to the Gamma nail, requiring further major surgery. In the absence of these complications, union was seen by six months in both groups.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 68-B, Issue 2 | Pages 182 - 184
1 Mar 1986
Signoret F Feron J Bonfait H Patel A

We report three patients in whom a fractured odontoid process was associated with a fracture of the superior articular process of the second cervical vertebra. Although there were no signs of neurological disorder, damage to the C1-C2 joint in all three patients made fusion necessary. Forced lateral flexion is suggested as the possible mechanism of injury.