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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 18 - 22
1 Jun 2021
Omari AM Parcells BW Levine HB Seidenstein A Parvizi J Klein GR


The optimal management of an infrapopliteal deep venous thrombosis (IDVT) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unknown. The risk of DVT propagation and symptom progression must be balanced against potential haemorrhagic complications associated with administration of anticoagulation therapy. The current study reports on a cohort of patients diagnosed with IDVT following TKA who were treated with aspirin, followed closely for development of symptoms, and scanned with ultrasound to determine resolution of IDVT.


Among a cohort of 5,078 patients undergoing TKA, 532 patients (695 TKAs, 12.6%) developed an IDVT between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2019 at a single institution, as diagnosed using Doppler ultrasound at the first postoperative visit. Of the entire cohort of 532 patients with IDVT, 91.4% (486/532) were treated with aspirin (325 mg twice daily) and followed closely. Repeat lower limb ultrasound was performed four weeks later to evaluate the status of IDVT.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 7 Supple B | Pages 11 - 19
1 Jul 2020
Shohat N Goswami K Tan TL Yayac M Soriano A Sousa R Wouthuyzen-Bakker M Parvizi J


Failure of irrigation and debridement (I&D) for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is influenced by numerous host, surgical, and pathogen-related factors. We aimed to develop and validate a practical, easy-to-use tool based on machine learning that may accurately predict outcome following I&D surgery taking into account the influence of numerous factors.


This was an international, multicentre retrospective study of 1,174 revision total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasties (TKA) undergoing I&D for PJI between January 2005 and December 2017. PJI was defined using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria. A total of 52 variables including demographics, comorbidities, and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated using random forest machine learning analysis. The algorithm was then verified through cross-validation.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 3 - 9
1 Jun 2020
Yang J Parvizi J Hansen EN Culvern CN Segreti JC Tan T Hartman CW Sporer SM Della Valle CJ


The aim of this study was to determine if a three-month course of microorganism-directed oral antibiotics reduces the rate of failure due to further infection following two-stage revision for chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip and knee.


A total of 185 patients undergoing a two-stage revision in seven different centres were prospectively enrolled. Of these patients, 93 were randomized to receive microorganism-directed oral antibiotics for three months following reimplantation; 88 were randomized to receive no antibiotics, and four were withdrawn before randomization. Of the 181 randomized patients, 28 were lost to follow-up, six died before two years follow-up, and five with culture negative infections were excluded. The remaining 142 patients were followed for a mean of 3.3 years (2.0 to 7.6) with failure due to a further infection as the primary endpoint. Patients who were treated with antibiotics were also assessed for their adherence to the medication regime and for side effects to antibiotics.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 7_Supple_C | Pages 3 - 9
1 Jul 2019
Shohat N Tarabichi M Tan TL Goswami K Kheir M Malkani AL Shah RP Schwarzkopf R Parvizi J


The best marker for assessing glycaemic control prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of fructosamine compared with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in predicting early complications following TKA, and to determine the threshold above which the risk of complications increased markedly.

Patients and Methods

This prospective multi-institutional study evaluated primary TKA patients from four academic institutions. Patients (both diabetics and non-diabetics) were assessed using fructosamine and HbA1c levels within 30 days of surgery. Complications were assessed for 12 weeks from surgery and included prosthetic joint infection (PJI), wound complication, re-admission, re-operation, and death. The Youden’s index was used to determine the cut-off for fructosamine and HbA1c associated with complications. Two additional cut-offs for HbA1c were examined: 7% and 7.5% and compared with fructosamine as a predictor for complications.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1125 - 1132
1 Aug 2018
Shohat N Foltz C Restrepo C Goswami K Tan T Parvizi J


The aim of this study was to examine the association between postoperative glycaemic variability and adverse outcomes following orthopaedic surgery.

Patients and Methods

This retrospective study analyzed data on 12 978 patients (1361 with two operations) who underwent orthopaedic surgery at a single institution between 2001 and 2017. Patients with a minimum of either two postoperative measurements of blood glucose levels per day, or more than three measurements overall, were included in the study. Glycaemic variability was assessed using a coefficient of variation (CV). The length of stay (LOS), in-hospital complications, and 90-day readmission and mortality rates were examined. Data were analyzed with linear and generalized linear mixed models for linear and binary outcomes, adjusting for various covariates.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 2 | Pages 127 - 133
1 Feb 2018
Tarabichi M Shohat N Goswami K Parvizi J


The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection can be difficult due to the high rate of culture-negative infections. The aim of this study was to assess the use of next-generation sequencing for detecting organisms in synovial fluid.

Materials and Methods

In this prospective, single-blinded study, 86 anonymized samples of synovial fluid were obtained from patients undergoing aspiration of the hip or knee as part of the investigation of a periprosthetic infection. A panel of synovial fluid tests, including levels of C-reactive protein, human neutrophil elastase, total neutrophil count, alpha-defensin, and culture were performed prior to next-generation sequencing.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 1_Supple_A | Pages 68 - 75
1 Jan 2018
Goel R Fleischman AN Tan T Sterbis E Huang R Higuera C Parvizi J Rothman RH


The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of two agents, aspirin and warfarin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA), and to elucidate the risk of VTE conferred by this procedure compared with unilateral TKA (UTKA).

Patients and Methods

A retrospective, multi-institutional study was conducted on 18 951 patients, 3685 who underwent SBTKA and 15 266 who underwent UTKA, using aspirin or warfarin as VTE prophylaxis. Each patient was assigned an individualised baseline VTE risk score based on a system using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Symptomatic VTE, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), were identified in the first 90 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression accounting for baseline VTE risk.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1420 - 1430
1 Nov 2017
Azboy I Barrack R Thomas AM Haddad FS Parvizi J

The number of arthroplasties being performed increases each year. Patients undergoing an arthroplasty are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and appropriate prophylaxis has been recommended. However, the optimal protocol and the best agent to minimise VTE under these circumstances are not known. Although many agents may be used, there is a difference in their efficacy and the risk of bleeding. Thus, the selection of a particular agent relies on the balance between the desire to minimise VTE and the attempt to reduce the risk of bleeding, with its undesirable, and occasionally fatal, consequences.

Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is an agent for VTE prophylaxis following arthroplasty. Many studies have shown its efficacy in minimising VTE under these circumstances. It is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and its use does not require routine blood tests. It is also a ‘milder’ agent and unlikely to result in haematoma formation, which may increase both the risk of infection and the need for further surgery. Aspirin is also unlikely to result in persistent wound drainage, which has been shown to be associated with the use of agents such as low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and other more aggressive agents.

The main objective of this review was to summarise the current evidence relating to the efficacy of aspirin as a VTE prophylaxis following arthroplasty, and to address some of the common questions about its use.

There is convincing evidence that, taking all factors into account, aspirin is an effective, inexpensive, and safe form of VTE following arthroplasty in patients without a major risk factor for VTE, such as previous VTE.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1420–30.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4_Supple_B | Pages 3 - 10
1 Apr 2017
Parvizi J Shohat N Gehrke T

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection. The WHO guidelines, if implemented worldwide, could have an immense impact on our practices and those of the CDC have implications for healthcare policy in the United States.

Our aim was to review the strategies for prevention of periprosthetic joint infection in light of these and other recent guidelines.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B(4 Supple B):3–10.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 6 | Pages 761 - 766
1 Jun 2016
Davis G Patel RP Tan TL Alijanipour P Naik TU Parvizi J


We aimed to assess the influence of ethnicity on the incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Patients and Methods

We studied the six-month post-operative anteroposterior radiographs of 1449 consecutive primary THAs (1324 patients) and retrospectively graded them for the presence of HO, using the Brooker Classification.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1_Supple_A | Pages 18 - 22
1 Jan 2016
Heller S Rezapoor M Parvizi J

The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a seven-step checklist that could help in minimising the risk of PJI. The check list includes strategies that can be implemented pre-operatively such as medical optimisation, and reduction of the bioburden by effective skin preparation or actions taking during surgery such as administration of timely and appropriate antibiotics or blood conservation, and finally implementation of post-operative protocols such as efforts to minimise wound drainage and haematoma formation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):18–22.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10_Supple_A | Pages 20 - 29
1 Oct 2015
Gehrke T Alijanipour P Parvizi J

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most feared and challenging complications following total knee arthroplasty. We provide a detailed description of our current understanding regarding the management of PJI of the knee, including diagnostic aids, pre-operative planning, surgical treatment, and outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B(10 Suppl A):20–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1157 - 1158
1 Sep 2015
Parvizi J Haddad FS

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 45 - 49
1 Jan 2015
Tokarski AT Novack TA Parvizi J

We hypothesised that the use of tantalum (Ta) acetabular components in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) was protective against subsequent failure due to infection. We identified 966 patients (421 men, 545 women and 990 hips) who had undergone revision THA between 2000 and 2013. The mean follow up was 40.2 months (3 months to 13.1 years). The mean age of the men and women was 62.3 years (31 to 90) and 65.1 years (25 to 92), respectively.

Titanium (Ti) acetabular components were used in 536 hips while Ta components were used in 454 hips. In total, 73 (7.3%) hips experienced subsequent acetabular failure. The incidence of failure was lower in the Ta group at 4.4% (20/454) compared with 9.9% (53/536) in the Ti group (p < 0.001, odds ratio 2.38; 95% CI 1.37 to 4.27). Among the 144 hips (64 Ta, 80 Ti) for which revision had been performed because of infection, failure due to a subsequent infection was lower in the Ta group at 3.1% (2/64) compared with 17.5% (14/80) for the Ti group (p = 0.006).

Thus, the use of Ta acetabular components during revision THA was associated with a lower incidence of failure from all causes and Ta components were associated with a lower incidence of subsequent infection when used in patients with periprosthetic joint infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:45–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 569 - 573
1 May 2014
Sullivan MP McHale KJ Parvizi J Mehta S

Nanotechnology is the study, production and controlled manipulation of materials with a grain size < 100 nm. At this level, the laws of classical mechanics fall away and those of quantum mechanics take over, resulting in unique behaviour of matter in terms of melting point, conductivity and reactivity. Additionally, and likely more significant, as grain size decreases, the ratio of surface area to volume drastically increases, allowing for greater interaction between implants and the surrounding cellular environment. This favourable increase in surface area plays an important role in mesenchymal cell differentiation and ultimately bone–implant interactions.

Basic science and translational research have revealed important potential applications for nanotechnology in orthopaedic surgery, particularly with regard to improving the interaction between implants and host bone. Nanophase materials more closely match the architecture of native trabecular bone, thereby greatly improving the osseo-integration of orthopaedic implants. Nanophase-coated prostheses can also reduce bacterial adhesion more than conventionally surfaced prostheses. Nanophase selenium has shown great promise when used for tumour reconstructions, as has nanophase silver in the management of traumatic wounds. Nanophase silver may significantly improve healing of peripheral nerve injuries, and nanophase gold has powerful anti-inflammatory effects on tendon inflammation.

Considerable advances must be made in our understanding of the potential health risks of production, implantation and wear patterns of nanophase devices before they are approved for clinical use. Their potential, however, is considerable, and is likely to benefit us all in the future.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B: 569–73.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 1 | Pages 65 - 69
1 Jan 2014
Gutowski CJ Zmistowski BM Clyde CT Parvizi J

The rate of peri-prosthetic infection following total joint replacement continues to rise, and attempts to curb this trend have included the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement at the time of primary surgery. We have investigated the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of the use of antibiotic-loaded cement for primary total knee replacement (TKR) by comparing the rate of infection in 3048 TKRs performed without loaded cement over a three-year period versus the incidence of infection after 4830 TKRs performed with tobramycin-loaded cement over a later period of time of a similar duration. In order to adjust for confounding factors, the rate of infection in 3347 and 4702 uncemented total hip replacements (THR) performed during the same time periods, respectively, was also examined. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the patients in the different cohorts.

The absolute rate of infection increased when antibiotic-loaded cement was used in TKR. However, this rate of increase was less than the rate of increase in infection following uncemented THR during the same period. If the rise in the rate of infection observed in THR were extrapolated to the TKR cohort, 18 additional cases of infection would have been expected to occur in the cohort receiving antibiotic-loaded cement, compared with the number observed. Depending on the type of antibiotic-loaded cement that is used, its cost in all primary TKRs ranges between USD $2112.72 and USD $112 606.67 per case of infection that is prevented.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:65–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1450 - 1452
1 Nov 2013
Parvizi J Gehrke T Chen AF

Louis Pasteur once said that: “Fortune favours the prepared mind.” As one of the great scientists who contributed to the fight against infection, he emphasised the importance of being prepared at all times to recognise infection and deal with it. Despite the many scientific discoveries and technological advances, such as the advent of antibiotics and the use of sterile techniques, infection continues to be a problem that haunts orthopaedic surgeons and inflicts suffering on patients.

The medical community has implemented many practices with the intention of preventing infection and treating it effectively when it occurs. Although high-level evidence may support some of these practices, many are based on little to no scientific foundation. Thus, around the world, there is great variation in practices for the prevention and management of periprosthetic joint infection.

This paper summaries the instigation, conduct and findings of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1450–2.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 133 - 134
1 Nov 2013
Parvizi J Diaz-Ledezma C

Total knee replacement (TKR) is an operation that can be performed with or without the use of a tourniquet. Meta-analyses of the available Level-1 studies have demonstrated that the use of a tourniquet leads to a significant reduction in blood loss. The opponents for use of a tourniquet cite development of complications such as skin bruising, neurovascular injury, and metabolic disturbance as drawbacks. Although there may certainly be reason for concern in arteriopathic patients, there is little evidence that routine use of a tourniquet during TKR results in any of the above complications. The use of a tourniquet, on the other hand, provides a bloodless field that allows the surgeon to perform the procedure with expediency and optimal visualisation. Blood conservation has gained great importance in recent years due to increased understanding of the problems associated with blood transfusion, such as increased surgical site infection (due to immunomodulation effect), increased length of hospital stay and increased cost. Based on the authors’ understanding of the available evidence, the routine use of a tourniquet during TKR is justified as good surgical practice.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B, Supple A:133–4.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 7 | Pages 893 - 899
1 Jul 2013
Diaz-Ledezma C Novack T Marin-Peña O Parvizi J

Orthopaedic surgeons have accepted various radiological signs to be representative of acetabular retroversion, which is the main characteristic of focal over-coverage in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Using a validated method for radiological analysis, we assessed the relevance of these signs to predict intra-articular lesions in 93 patients undergoing surgery for FAI. A logistic regression model to predict chondral damage showed that an acetabular retroversion index (ARI) > 20%, a derivative of the well-known cross-over sign, was an independent predictor (p = 0.036). However, ARI was less significant than the Tönnis classification (p = 0.019) and age (p = 0.031) in the same model. ARI was unable to discriminate between grades of chondral lesions, while the type of cam lesion (p = 0.004) and age (p = 0.047) were able to. Other widely recognised signs of acetabular retroversion, such as the ischial spine sign, the posterior wall sign or the cross-over sign were irrelevant according to our analysis. Regardless of its secondary predictive role, an ARI > 20% appears to be the most clinically relevant radiological sign of acetabular retroversion in symptomatic patients with FAI.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:893–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 4 - 9
1 Jan 2013
Goyal N Miller A Tripathi M Parvizi J

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of surgical site infection (SSI). Over the past decade there has been an increase in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This is a subpopulation of the bacterium with unique resistance and virulence characteristics. Nasal colonisation with either S. aureus or MRSA has been demonstrated to be an important independent risk factor associated with the increasing incidence and severity of SSI after orthopaedic surgery. Furthermore, there is an economic burden related to SSI following orthopaedic surgery, with MRSA-associated SSI leading to longer hospital stays and increased hospital costs. Although there is some controversy about the effectiveness of screening and eradication programmes, the literature suggests that patients should be screened and MRSA-positive patients treated before surgical admission in order to reduce the risk of SSI.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:4–9.