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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 | Pages 772 - 778
1 Jun 2020
Kim Y Jang WY Park JW Park YK Cho HS Han I Kim H


For paediatric and adolescent patients with growth potential, preservation of the physiological joint by transepiphyseal resection (TER) of the femur confers definite advantages over arthroplasty procedures. We hypothesized that the extent of the tumour and changes in its extent after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are essential factors in the selection of this procedure, and can be assessed with MRI. The oncological and functional outcomes of the procedure were reviewed to confirm its safety and efficacy.


We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients (seven male and nine female, mean age 12.2 years (7 to 16)) with osteosarcoma of the knee who had been treated by TER. We evaluated the MRI scans before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for all patients to assess the extent of the disease and the response to treatment.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 5 | Pages 556 - 567
1 May 2020
Park JW Lee Y Lee YJ Shin S Kang Y Koo K

Deep gluteal syndrome is an increasingly recognized disease entity, caused by compression of the sciatic or pudendal nerve due to non-discogenic pelvic lesions. It includes the piriformis syndrome, the gemelli-obturator internus syndrome, the ischiofemoral impingement syndrome, and the proximal hamstring syndrome. The concept of the deep gluteal syndrome extends our understanding of posterior hip pain due to nerve entrapment beyond the traditional model of the piriformis syndrome. Nevertheless, there has been terminological confusion and the deep gluteal syndrome has often been undiagnosed or mistaken for other conditions. Careful history-taking, a physical examination including provocation tests, an electrodiagnostic study, and imaging are necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

After excluding spinal lesions, MRI scans of the pelvis are helpful in diagnosing deep gluteal syndrome and identifying pathological conditions entrapping the nerves. It can be conservatively treated with multidisciplinary treatment including rest, the avoidance of provoking activities, medication, injections, and physiotherapy.

Endoscopic or open surgical decompression is recommended in patients with persistent or recurrent symptoms after conservative treatment or in those who may have masses compressing the sciatic nerve.

Many physicians remain unfamiliar with this syndrome and there is a lack of relevant literature. This comprehensive review aims to provide the latest information about the epidemiology, aetiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(5):556–567.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1508 - 1514
1 Nov 2017
Park JH Jang WY Kwak DH Park JW


Positive ulnar variance is an established risk factor for idiopathic ulnar impaction syndrome (UIS). However, not all patients with positive ulnar variance develop symptomatic UIS and other factors, including the morphology of the lunate, may be involved. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between lunate morphology and idiopathic UIS.

Patients and Methods

A cohort of 95 patients with idiopathic UIS (UIS group) was compared with 95 asymptomatic controls with positive ulnar variance. The shape of the lunate was measured using the capitate-triquetrum distance (CTD), ulnar coverage ratio (UCR), radiolunate distance and radiolunate angle. The association of radiographic parameters and lunate types with the development of UIS was investigated in univariable and multivariable analyses. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate a cutoff for any statistically significant variables.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1546 - 1554
1 Nov 2015
Kim HJ Park JW Chang BS Lee CK Yeom JS

Pain catastrophising is an adverse coping mechanism, involving an exaggerated response to anticipated or actual pain.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of pain ‘catastrophising’, as measured using the pain catastrophising scale (PCS), on treatment outcomes after surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).

A total of 138 patients (47 men and 91 women, mean age 65.9; 45 to 78) were assigned to low (PCS score < 25, n = 68) and high (PCS score ≥ 25, n = 70) PCS groups. The primary outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) 12 months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures included the ODI and visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, which were recorded at each assessment conducted during the 12-month follow-up period

The overall changes in the ODI and VAS for back and leg pain over a 12-month period were significantly different between the groups (ODI, p < 0.001; VAS for back pain, p < 0.001; VAS for leg pain, p = 0.040). The ODI and VAS for back and leg pain significantly decreased over time after surgery in both groups (p < 0.001 for all three variables). The patterns of change in the ODI and VAS for back pain during the follow-up period significantly differed between the two groups, suggesting that the PCS group is a potential treatment moderator. However, there was no difference in the ODI and VAS for back and leg pain between the low and high PCS groups 12 months after surgery.

In terms of minimum clinically important differences in ODI scores (12.8), 22 patients (40.7%) had an unsatisfactory surgical outcome in the low PCS group and 16 (32.6%) in the high PCS group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.539).

Pre-operative catastrophising did not always result in a poor outcome 12 months after surgery, which indicates that this could moderate the efficacy of surgery for LSS.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1546–54.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1364 - 1369
1 Oct 2015
Kim J Park JW Hong SW Jeong JY Gong HS Baek GH

Macrodactyly of the foot is a rare but disabling condition. We present the results of surgery on 18 feet of 16 patients, who underwent ray amputation and were followed-up for more than two years at a mean of 80 months (25 to 198).

We radiologically measured the intermetatarsal width and forefoot area pre-operatively and at six weeks and two years after surgery. We also evaluated the clinical results using the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for children (OxAFQ-C) and the Questionnaire for Foot Macrodactyly.

The intermetatarsal width and forefoot area ratios were significantly decreased after surgery. The mean OxAFQ-C score was 42 (16 to 57) pre-operatively, improving to 47 (5 to 60) at two years post-operatively (p = 0.021). The mean questionnaire for Foot Macrodactyly score two years after surgery was 8 (6 to 10).

Ray amputation gave a measurable reduction in foot size with excellent functional results. For patients with metatarsal involvement, a motionless toe, or involvement of multiple digits, ray amputation is a clinically effective option which is acceptable to patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1364–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1561 - 1565
1 Nov 2014
Park JW Kim YS Yoon JO Kim JS Chang JS Kim JM Chun JM Jeon IH

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection of the musculoskeletal tissue is a rare disease. An early and accurate diagnosis is often difficult because of the indolent clinical course and difficulty of isolating pathogens. Our goal was to determine the clinical features of musculoskeletal NTM infection and to present the treatment outcomes. A total of 29 patients (nine females, 20 males between 34 and 85 years old, mean age 61.7 years; 34 to 85) with NTM infection of the musculoskeletal system between 1998 to 2011 were identified and their treatment retrospectively analysed. Microbiological studies demonstrated NTM in 29 patients: the isolates were Mycobacterium intracellulare in six patients, M. fortuitum in three, M. abscessus in two and M. marinum in one. In the remaining patients we failed to identify the species. The involved sites were the hand/wrist in nine patients the knee in five patients, spine in four patients, foot in two patients, elbow in two patients, shoulder in one, ankle in two patients, leg in three patients and multiple in one patient. The mean interval between the appearance of symptoms and diagnosis was 20.8 months (1.5 to 180). All patients underwent surgical treatment and antimicrobial medication according to our protocol for chronic musculoskeletal infection: 20 patients had NTM-specific medication and nine had conventional antimicrobial therapy. At the final follow-up 22 patients were cured, three failed to respond to treatment and four were lost to follow-up. Identifying these diseases due the initial non-specific presentation can be difficult. Treatment consists of surgical intervention and adequate antimicrobial therapy, which can result in satisfactory outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1561–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 93 - 97
1 Jan 2012
Lee JH Lee J Park JW Shin YH

In patients with osteoporosis there is always a strong possibility that pedicle screws will loosen. This makes it difficult to select the appropriate osteoporotic patient for a spinal fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and the magnitude of torque required to insert a pedicle screw. To accomplish this, 181 patients with degenerative disease of the lumbar spine were studied prospectively. Each underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and intra-operative measurement of the torque required to insert each pedicle screw. The levels of torque generated in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia were significantly lower than those achieved in normal patients. Positive correlations were observed between BMD and T-value at the instrumented lumbar vertebrae, mean BMD and mean T-value of the lumbar vertebrae, and mean BMD and mean T-value of the proximal femur. The predictive torque (Nm) generated during pedicle screw insertion was [-0.127 + 1.62 × (BMD at the corresponding lumbar vertebrae)], as measured by linear regression analysis. The positive correlation between BMD and the maximum torque required to insert a pedicle screw suggests that pre-operative assessment of BMD may be useful in determining the ultimate strength of fixation of a device, as well as the number of levels that need to be fixed with pedicle screws in patients who are suspected of having osteoporosis.