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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 10 | Pages 742 - 749
6 Oct 2023
Mabrouk A Abouharb A Stewart G Palan J Pandit H


Prophylactic antibiotic regimens for elective primary total hip and knee arthroplasty vary widely across hospitals and trusts in the UK. This study aimed to identify antibiotic prophylaxis regimens currently in use for elective primary arthroplasty across the UK, establish variations in antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and their impact on the risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the first-year post-index procedure, and evaluate adherence to current international consensus guidance.


The guidelines for the primary and alternative recommended prophylactic antibiotic regimens in clean orthopaedic surgery (primary arthroplasty) for 109 hospitals and trusts across the UK were sought by searching each trust and hospital’s website (intranet webpages), and by using the MicroGuide app. The mean cost of each antibiotic regimen was calculated using price data from the British National Formulary (BNF). Regimens were then compared to the 2018 Philadelphia Consensus Guidance, to evaluate adherence to international guidance.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1339 - 1344
1 Aug 2021
Jain S Mohrir G Townsend O Lamb JN Palan J Aderinto J Pandit H


This aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Unified Classification System (UCS) for postoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) around cemented polished taper-slip (PTS) stems.


Radiographs of 71 patients with a PFF admitted consecutively at two centres between 25 February 2012 and 19 May 2020 were collated by an independent investigator. Six observers (three hip consultants and three trainees) were familiarized with the UCS. Each PFF was classified on two separate occasions, with a mean time between assessments of 22.7 days (16 to 29). Interobserver reliability for more than two observers was assessed using percentage agreement and Fleiss’ kappa statistic. Intraobserver reliability between two observers was calculated with Cohen kappa statistic. Validity was tested on surgically managed UCS type B PFFs where stem stability was documented in operation notes (n = 50). Validity was assessed using percentage agreement and Cohen kappa statistic between radiological assessment and intraoperative findings. Kappa statistics were interpreted using Landis and Koch criteria. All six observers were blinded to operation notes and postoperative radiographs.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 7, Issue 5 | Pages 2 - 7
1 Oct 2018
Palan J Bloch BV Shannak O James P

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1347 - 1354
1 Oct 2016
Palan J Smith MC Gregg P Mellon S Kulkarni A Tucker K Blom AW Murray DW Pandit H


Periprosthetic fracture (PF) after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an uncommon but potentially devastating complication. This study aims to investigate the influence of cemented stem designs on the risk of needing a revision for a PF.

Patients and Methods

We analysed data on 257 202 primary THAs with cemented stems and 390 linked first revisions for PF recorded in the National Joint Registry (NJR) of England, Wales and Northern Ireland to determine if a cemented femoral stem brand was associated with the risk of having revision for a PF after primary THA. All cemented femoral stem brands with more than 10 000 primary operations recorded in the NJR were identified. The four most commonly used cemented femoral stems were the Exeter V40 (n = 146 409), CPT (n = 24 300), C-Stem (n = 15 113) and Charnley (n = 20 182).

We compared the revision risk ratios due to PF amongst the stems using a Poisson regression model adjusting for patient factors. Compared with the Exeter V40, the age, gender and ASA grade adjusted revision rate ratio was 3.89 for the cemented CPT stem (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.07 to 4.93), 0.89 for the C-Stem (95% CI 0.57 to 1.41) and 0.41 for the Charnley stem (95% CI 0.24 to 0.70).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1170 - 1175
1 Sep 2012
Palan J Roberts V Bloch B Kulkarni A Bhowal B Dias J

The use of journal clubs and, more recently, case-based discussions in order to stimulate debate among orthopaedic surgeons lies at the heart of orthopaedic training and education. A virtual learning environment can be used as a platform to host virtual journal clubs and case-based discussions. This has many advantages in the current climate of constrained time and diminishing trainee and consultant participation in such activities. The virtual environment model opens up participation and improves access to journal clubs and case-based discussions, provides reusable educational content, establishes an electronic record of participation for individuals, makes use of multimedia material (including clinical imaging and photographs) for discussion, and finally, allows participants to link case-based discussions with relevant papers in the journal club.

The Leicester experience highlights the many advantages and some of the potential difficulties in setting up such a virtual system and provides useful guidance for those considering such a system in their own training programme. As a result of the virtual learning environment, trainee participation has increased and there is a trend for increased consultant input in the virtual journal club and case-based discussions.

It is likely that the use of virtual environments will expand to encompass newer technological approaches to personal learning and professional development.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 7 | Pages 928 - 934
1 Jul 2009
Palan J Gulati A Andrew JG Murray DW Beard DJ

Balancing service provision and surgical training is a challenging issue that affects all healthcare systems. A multicentre prospective study of 1501 total hip replacements was undertaken to investigate whether there is an association between surgical outcome and the grade of the operating surgeon, and whether there is any difference in outcome if surgeons’ assistants assist with the operation, rather than orthopaedic trainees. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Oxford hip score (OHS) at five years. Secondary outcomes included the rate of revision and dislocation, operating time, and length of hospital stay.

There was no significant difference in ΔOHS or complication rates between operations undertaken by trainers and trainees, or those at which surgeons’ assistants and trainees were the assistant. However, there was a significant difference in the duration of surgery, with a mean reduction of 28 minutes in those in which a surgeons’ assistant was the assistant.

This study provides evidence that total hip replacements can be performed safely and effectively by appropriately trained surgeons in training, and that there are potential benefits of using surgeons’ assistants in orthopaedic surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 424 - 429
1 Apr 2008
Andrew JG Palan J Kurup HV Gibson P Murray DW Beard DJ

A prospective, multi-centre study was carried out on 1421 total hip replacements between January 1999 and July 2007 to examine if obesity has an effect on clinical outcomes.

The patients were categorised into three groups: non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2), obese (BMI 30 to 40 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2). The primary outcome measure was the change in Oxford hip score at five years. Secondary outcome measures included dislocation and revision rates, increased haemorrhage, deep infection, deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, mean operating time and length of hospital stay. Radiological analysis assessing heterotopic ossification, femoral osteolysis and femoral stem positioning was performed. Data were incomplete for 362 hips (25.5%)

There was no difference in the change in the Oxford hip score, complication rates or radiological changes at five years between the groups. The morbidly obese group was significantly younger and required a significantly longer operating time. Obese and morbidly obese patients have as much to gain from total hip replacement as non-obese patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 436 - 441
1 Apr 2008
Steffen RT Pandit HP Palan J Beard DJ Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Murray DW Gill HS

Few independent studies have reported the outcome of resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip. The aim of this study was to report the five-year clinical outcome and seven-year survival of an independent series.

A total of 610 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing arthroplasties were performed in 532 patients with a mean age of 51.8 years (16.5 to 81.6). They were followed for between two and eight years; 107 patients (120 hips) had been followed up for more than five years. Two patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum of five years’ follow-up, 79 of 85 hips (93%) had an excellent or good outcome according to the Harris hip score. The mean Oxford hip score was 16.1 points (sd 7.7) and the mean University of California Los Angeles activity score was 6.6 points (sd 1.9). There were no patients with definite radiological evidence of loosening or of narrowing of the femoral neck exceeding 10% of its width. There were 23 revisions (3.8%), giving an overall survival of 95% (95% confidence interval 85.3 to 99.2) at seven years. Fractured neck of femur in 12 hips was the most common indication for revision, followed by aseptic loosening in four. In three hips (three patients) (0.5%), failure was possibly related to metal debris.

Considering that these patients are young and active these results are good, and support the use of resurfacing. Further study is needed to address the early failures, particularly those related to fracture and metal debris.