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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1052 - 1059
1 Oct 2023
El-Sahoury JAN Kjærgaard K Ovesen O Hofbauer C Overgaard S Ding M


The primary outcome was investigating differences in wear, as measured by femoral head penetration, between cross-linked vitamin E-diffused polyethylene (vE-PE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) acetabular component liners and between 32 and 36 mm head sizes at the ten-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included acetabular component migration and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) such as the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Harris Hip Score, and University of California, Los Angeles Activity Scale (UCLA).


A single-blinded, multi-arm, 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial was undertaken. Patients were recruited between May 2009 and April 2011. Radiostereometric analyses (RSAs) were performed from baseline to ten years. Of the 220 eligible patients, 116 underwent randomization, and 82 remained at the ten-year follow-up. Eligible patients were randomized into one of four interventions: vE-PE acetabular liner with either 32 or 36 mm femoral head, and XLPE acetabular liner with either 32 or 36 mm femoral head. Parameters were otherwise identical except for acetabular liner material and femoral head size.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 2 | Pages 221 - 226
1 Feb 2022
Edwards NM Varnum C Nelissen RGHH Overgaard S Pedersen AB


The aim of this study was to examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of infections following total hip arthroplasty (THA) at 30 and 90 days.


We obtained individual-based information on SES markers (cohabitation, education, income, and savings) on 103,901 THA patients from Danish health registries between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2017. The primary outcome measure was any hospital-treated infection (i.e. all infections). The secondary outcomes were further specified to specific hospital-treated infections (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and periprosthetic joint infection). The primary timepoint was within 90 days. In addition, the outcomes were further evaluated within 30 days. We calculated the cumulative incidence, and used the pseudo-observation method and generalized linear regression to estimate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each marker.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 1 | Pages 127 - 133
1 Jan 2022
Viberg B Pedersen AB Kjærsgaard A Lauritsen J Overgaard S


The aim of this study was to assess the association of mortality and reoperation when comparing cemented and uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) in hip fracture patients aged over 65 years.


This was a population-based cohort study on hip fracture patients using prospectively gathered data from several national registries in Denmark from 2004 to 2015 with up to five years follow-up. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcome was reoperation. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality and subdistributional hazard ratios (sHRs) for reoperations are shown with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1571 - 1577
1 Oct 2021
Schelde AB Petersen J Jensen TB Gromov K Overgaard S Olesen JB Jimenez-Solem E


The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylactic treatments in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


Using nationwide medical registries, we identified patients with a primary TKA performed in Denmark between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2018 who received thromboprophylactic treatment. We examined the 90-day risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), major bleeding, and all-cause mortality following surgery. We used a Cox regression model to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome, pairwise comparing treatment with dalteparin or dabigatran with rivaroxaban as the reference. The HRs were both computed using a multivariable and a propensity score matched analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 449 - 455
1 Mar 2021
Viberg B Gundtoft PH Schønnemann JO Pedersen L Andersen LR Titlestad K Madsen CF Clemmensen SB Halekoh U Lauritsen J Overgaard S


To assess the safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in a large cohort of patients aged over 65 years who have sustained a hip fracture, with a focus on transfusion rates, mortality, and thromboembolic events.


This is a consecutive cohort study with prospectively collected registry data. Patients with a hip fracture in the Region of Southern Denmark were included over a two-year time period (2015 to 2017) with the first year constituting a control group. In the second year, perioperative TXA was introduced as an intervention. Outcome was transfusion frequency, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and thromboembolic events. The latter was defined as any diagnosis or death due to arterial or venous thrombosis. The results are presented as relative risk (RR) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1303 - 1310
3 Oct 2020
Kjærgaard K Ding M Jensen C Bragdon C Malchau H Andreasen CM Ovesen O Hofbauer C Overgaard S


The most frequent indication for revision surgery in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is aseptic loosening. Aseptic loosening is associated with polyethylene liner wear, and wear may be reduced by using vitamin E-doped liners. The primary objective of this study was to compare proximal femoral head penetration into the liner between a) two cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liners (vitamin E-doped (vE-PE)) versus standard XLPE liners, and b) two modular femoral head diameters (32 mm and 36 mm).


Patients scheduled for a THA were randomized to receive a vE-PE or XLPE liner with a 32 mm or 36 mm metal head (four intervention groups in a 2 × 2 factorial design). Head penetration and acetabular component migration were measured using radiostereometric analysis at baseline, three, 12, 24, and 60 months postoperatively. The Harris Hip Score, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Activity Score, EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) were assessed at baseline, three, 12, 36, and 60 months.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 960 - 969
1 Aug 2019
Odgaard A Laursen MB Gromov K Troelsen A Kristensen PW Schrøder H Madsen F Overgaard S


The aim of this study was to give estimates of the incidence of component incompatibility in hip and knee arthroplasty and to test the effect of an online, real-time compatibility check.

Materials and Methods

Intraoperative barcode registration of arthroplasty implants was introduced in Denmark in 2013. We developed a compatibility database and, from May 2017, real-time compatibility checking was implemented and became part of the registration. We defined four classes of component incompatibility: A-I, A-II, B-I, and B-II, depending on an assessment of the level of risk to the patient (A/B), and on whether incompatibility was knowingly accepted (I/II).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 3 | Pages 320 - 325
1 Mar 2016
Gundtoft PH Pedersen AB Schønheyder HC Overgaard S


The purpose of this study was to validate the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR).

Patients and Methods

We identified a cohort of patients from the DHR who had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) since 1 January 2005 and followed them until first-time revision, death, emigration or until 31 December 2012.

Revision for PJI, as registered in the DHR, was validated against a benchmark which included information from microbiology databases, prescription registers, clinical biochemistry registers and clinical records.

We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for PJI in the DHR alone and in the DHR when combined with microbiology databases.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 4 | Pages 479 - 485
1 Apr 2014
Pedersen AB Mehnert F Sorensen HT Emmeluth C Overgaard S Johnsen SP

We examined the risk of thrombotic and major bleeding events in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement (THR and TKR) treated with thromboprophylaxis, using nationwide population-based databases. We identified 83 756 primary procedures performed between 1997 and 2011. The outcomes were symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and major bleeding requiring hospitalisation within 90 days of surgery.

A total of 1114 (1.3%) and 483 (0.6%) patients experienced VTE and bleeding, respectively. The annual risk of VTE varied between 0.9% and 1.6%, and of bleeding between 0.4% and 0.8%. The risk of VTE and bleeding was unchanged over a 15-year period. A total of 0.7% of patients died within 90 days, with a decrease from 1% in 1997 to 0.6% in 2011 (p < 0.001). A high level of comorbidity and general anaesthesia were strong risk factors for both VTE and bleeding, with no difference between THR and TKR patients. The risk of both MI and stroke was 0.5%, which remained unchanged during the study period.

In this cohort study of patients undergoing THR and TKR patients in routine clinical practice, approximately 3% experienced VTE, MI, stroke or bleeding. These risks did not decline during the 15-year study period, but the risk of dying fell substantially.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:479–85.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1344 - 1350
1 Oct 2012
Penny JO Ding M Varmarken JE Ovesen O Overgaard S

Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovement over the first two years after implantation was 0.107 mm (sd 0.513) laterally, 0.055 mm (sd 0.204) distally and 0.150 mm (sd 0.413) anteriorly. The mean backward tilt around the x-axis was -0.08° (sd 1.088), mean internal rotation was 0.165° (sd 0.924) and mean varus tilt 0.238° (sd 0.420). The baseline to two-year varus tilt was statistically significant from zero movement, but there was no significant movement from one year onwards.

We conclude that the ASR femoral component achieves initial stability and that early migration is not the mode of failure for this resurfacing arthroplasty.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 1, Issue 9 | Pages 225 - 233
1 Sep 2012
Paulsen A Odgaard A Overgaard S


The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a 12-item questionnaire designed and developed to assess function and pain from the perspective of patients who are undergoing total hip replacement (THR). The OHS has been shown to be consistent, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change following THR. It has been translated into different languages, but no adequately translated, adapted and validated Danish language version exists.


The OHS was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Danish from the original English version, using methods based on best-practice guidelines. The translation was tested for psychometric quality in patients drawn from a cohort from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1036 - 1044
1 Aug 2012
Penny JO Brixen K Varmarken JE Ovesen O Overgaard S

It is accepted that resurfacing hip replacement preserves the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur better than total hip replacement (THR). However, no studies have investigated any possible difference on the acetabular side.

Between April 2007 and March 2009, 39 patients were randomised into two groups to receive either a resurfacing or a THR and were followed for two years. One patient’s resurfacing subsequently failed, leaving 19 patients in each group.

Resurfaced replacements maintained proximal femoral BMD and, compared with THR, had an increased bone mineral density in Gruen zones 2, 3, 6, and particularly zone 7, with a gain of 7.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 12.5) compared with a loss of 14.6% (95% CI 7.6 to 21.6). Resurfacing replacements maintained the BMD of the medial femoral neck and increased that in the lateral zones between 12.8% (95% CI 4.3 to 21.4) and 25.9% (95% CI 7.1 to 44.6).

On the acetabular side, BMD was similar in every zone at each point in time. The mean BMD of all acetabular regions in the resurfaced group was reduced to 96.2% (95% CI 93.7 to 98.6) and for the total hip replacement group to 97.6% (95% CI 93.7 to 101.5) (p = 0.4863). A mean total loss of 3.7% (95% CI 1.0 to 6.5) and 4.9% (95% CI 0.8 to 9.0) of BMD was found above the acetabular component in W1 and 10.2% (95% CI 0.9 to 19.4) and 9.1% (95% CI 3.8 to 14.4) medial to the implant in W2 for resurfaced replacements and THRs respectively. Resurfacing resulted in a mean loss of BMD of 6.7% (95% CI 0.7 to 12.7) in W3 but the BMD inferior to the acetabular component was maintained in both groups.

These results suggest that the ability of a resurfacing hip replacement to preserve BMD only applies to the femoral side.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 172 - 177
1 Feb 2011
Pedersen AB Baron JA Overgaard S Johnsen SP

We evaluated the short-term of 0 to 90 days and the longer term, up to 12.7 years, mortality for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR) in Denmark in comparison to the general population. Through the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry we identified all primary THRs undertaken for osteoarthritis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006. Each patient (n = 44 558) was matched at the time of surgery with three people from the general population (n = 133 674). We estimated mortality rates and mortality rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals for THR patients compared with the general population. There was a one-month period of increased mortality immediately after surgery among THR patients, but overall short-term mortality (0 to 90 days) was significantly lower (mortality rate ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 0.9). However, THR surgery was associated with increased short-term mortality in subjects under 60 years old, and among THR patients without comorbidity. Long-term mortality was lower among THR patients than in controls (mortality rate ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 0.7).

Overall, THR was associated with lower short- and long-term mortality among patients with osteoarthritis. Younger patients and patients without comorbidity before surgery may also experience increased mortality after THR surgery, although the absolute risk of death is small.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 1 | Pages 121 - 126
1 Jan 2007
Jensen TB Overgaard S Lind M Rahbek O Bünger C Søballe K

Impacted bone allograft is often used in revision joint replacement. Hydroxyapatite granules have been suggested as a substitute or to enhance morcellised bone allograft. We hypothesised that adding osteogenic protein-1 to a composite of bone allograft and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite granules (ProOsteon) would improve the incorporation of bone and implant fixation. We also compared the response to using ProOsteon alone against bone allograft used in isolation. We implanted two non-weight-bearing hydroxyapatite-coated implants into each proximal humerus of six dogs, with each implant surrounded by a concentric 3 mm gap. These gaps were randomly allocated to four different procedures in each dog: 1) bone allograft used on its own; 2) ProOsteon used on its own; 3) allograft and ProOsteon used together; or 4) allograft and ProOsteon with the addition of osteogenic protein-1.

After three weeks osteogenic protein-1 increased bone formation and the energy absorption of implants grafted with allograft and ProOsteon. A composite of allograft, ProOsteon and osteogenic protein-1 was comparable, but not superior to, allograft used on its own.

ProOsteon alone cannot be recommended as a substitute for allograft around non-cemented implants, but should be used to extend the volume of the graft, preferably with the addition of a growth factor.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1303 - 1308
1 Oct 2006
Johnsen SP Sørensen HT Lucht U Søballe K Overgaard S Pedersen AB

We examined the association between patient-related factors and the risk of initial, short- and long-term implant failure after primary total hip replacement. We used data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2002, which gave us a total of 36 984 patients. Separate analyses were carried out for three follow-up periods: 0 to 30 days, 31 days to six months (short term), and six months to 8.6 years after primary total hip replacement (long term). The outcome measure was defined as time to failure, which included re-operation with open surgery for any reason.

Male gender and a high Charlson co-morbidity index score were strongly predictive for failure, irrespective of the period of follow-up. Age and diagnosis at primary total hip replacement were identified as time-dependent predictive factors of failure. During the first 30 days after primary total hip replacement, an age of 80 years or more and hip replacement undertaken as a sequela of trauma, for avascular necrosis or paediatric conditions, were associated with an increased risk of failure. However, during six months to 8.6 years after surgery, being less than 60 years old was associated with an increased risk of failure, whereas none of the diagnoses for primary total hip replacement appeared to be independent predictors.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 3 | Pages 441 - 447
1 Apr 2001
Rahbek O Overgaard S Lind M Bendix K Bünger C Søballe K

We have studied the beneficial effects of a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the prevention of the migration of wear debris along the implant-bone interface. We implanted a loaded HA-coated implant and a non-coated grit-blasted titanium alloy (Ti) implant in each distal femoral condyle of eight Labrador dogs. The test implant was surrounded by a gap communicating with the joint space and allowing access of joint fluid to the implant-bone interface. We injected polyethylene (PE) particles into the right knee three weeks after surgery and repeated this weekly for the following five weeks. The left knee received sham injections. The animals were killed eight weeks after surgery. Specimens from the implant-bone interface were examined under plain and polarised light.

Only a few particles were found around HA-coated implants, but around Ti implants there was a large amount of particles. HA-coated implants had approximately 35% bone ingrowth, whereas Ti implants had virtually no bone ingrowth and were surrounded by a fibrous membrane.

Our findings suggest that HA coating of implants is able to inhibit peri-implant migration of PE particles by creating a seal of tightly-bonded bone on the surface of the implant.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 305 - 305
1 Mar 2000

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 4 | Pages 725 - 731
1 Jul 1999
Overgaard S Bromose U Lind M Bünger C Søballe K

We inserted two hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implants with crystallinities of either 50% (HA-50%) or 75% (HA-75%) bilaterally into the medial femoral condyles of the knees of 16 dogs. The implants were allocated to two groups with implantation periods of 16 and 32 weeks. They were weight-bearing and subjected to controlled micromovement of 250 μm during each gait cycle. After 16 weeks, mechanical fixation of the HA-50% implants was increased threefold as compared with the HA-75% implants. After 32 weeks there was no difference between HA-50% and HA-75%. Fixation of HA-75% increased from 16 to 32 weeks whereas that of HA-50% was unchanged. HA-50% implants had 100% more bone ingrowth than HA-75% implants after 16 weeks. More HA coating was removed on HA-50% implants compared with HA-75% implants after both 16 and 32 weeks. No further loss of the HA coating was shown from 16 to 32 weeks.

Our study suggests that the crystallinity of the HA coating is an important factor in its bioactivity and resorption during weight-bearing conditions. Our findings suggest two phases of coating resorption, an initial rapid loss, followed by a slow loss. Resorbed HA coating was partly replaced by bone ingrowth, suggesting that implant fixation will be durable.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 654 - 659
1 Jul 1997
Overgaard S Søballe K Lind M Bünger C

The clinical use of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating is controversial especially in regard to the long-term performance of the coating and the effects of resorption. In each of 15 consenting patients we inserted two implants, coated with either HA or fluorapatite (FA) into the iliac crest. They were harvested at a mean of 13.6 ± 0.6 months after surgery.

Histological examination showed that bone ongrowth on the HA-coated implants was significantly greater (29%) than that on the FA-coated implants. When bone was present on the coating surface the HA coating was significantly thicker than the FA coating. When bone marrow was present, the HA coating was significantly thinner than the FA coating. The reduction in coating thickness when covered by bone or bone marrow was 23.1 ± 9.7 μm for HA and 5.1 ± 1.7 μm for FA (p < 0.01) suggesting that FA is more stable than HA against resorption by bone marrow.

The findings suggest that in man the osteoconductive properties of HA coating are superior to those of FA. Resorption rates for both coatings were approximately 20% of the coating thickness per year. Bone ongrowth appears to protect against resorption whereas bone marrow seems to accelerate resorption. No adverse reaction was seen in the surrounding bone.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 5 | Pages 689 - 691
1 Sep 1996
Søballe K Overgaard S