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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 40 - 48
1 Jan 2016
Matharu GS Mansour R Dada O Ostlere S Pandit HG Murray DW


The aims of this study were to compare the diagnostic test characteristics of ultrasound alone, metal artefact reduction sequence MRI (MARS-MRI) alone, and ultrasound combined with MARS-MRI for identifying intra-operative pseudotumours in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) patients undergoing revision surgery.


This retrospective diagnostic accuracy study involved 39 patients (40 MoMHRs). The time between imaging modalities was a mean of 14.6 days (0 to 90), with imaging performed at a mean of 5.3 months (0.06 to 12) before revision. The prevalence of intra-operative pseudotumours was 82.5% (n = 33).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1341 - 1347
1 Oct 2011
Monk AP Doll HA Gibbons CLMH Ostlere S Beard DJ Gill HS Murray DW

Patella subluxation assessed on dynamic MRI has previously been shown to be associated with anterior knee pain. In this MRI study of 60 patients we investigated the relationship between subluxation and multiple bony, cartilaginous and soft-tissue factors that might predispose to subluxation using discriminant function analysis.

Patella engagement (% of patella cartilage overlapping with trochlea cartilage) had the strongest relationship with subluxation. Patellae with > 30% engagement tended not to sublux; those with < 30% tended to sublux. Other factors that were associated with subluxation included the tibial tubercle-trochlea notch distance, vastus medialis obliquus distance from patella, patella alta, and the bony and cartilaginous sulcus angles in the superior part of the trochlea. No relationship was found between subluxation and sulcus angles for cartilage and bone in the middle and lower part of the trochlea, cartilage thicknesses and Wiberg classification of the patella.

This study indicates that patella engagement is a key factor associated with patellar subluxation. This suggests that in patients with anterior knee pain with subluxation, resistant to conservative management, surgery directed towards improving patella engagement should be considered. A clinical trial is necessary to test this hypothesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 7 | Pages 847 - 851
1 Jul 2008
Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gibbons CLM Ostlere S Athanasou N Gill HS Murray DW

We report 17 patients (20 hips) in whom metal-on-metal resurfacing had been performed and who presented with various symptoms and a soft-tissue mass which we termed a pseudotumour. Each patient underwent plain radiography and in some, CT, MRI and ultrasonography were also performed. In addition, histological examination of available samples was undertaken.

All the patients were women and their presentation was variable. The most common symptom was discomfort in the region of the hip. Other symptoms included spontaneous dislocation, nerve palsy, a noticeable mass or a rash. The common histological features were extensive necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration. To date, 13 of the 20 hips have required revision to a conventional hip replacement. Two are awaiting revision.

We estimate that approximately 1% of patients who have a metal-on-metal resurfacing develop a pseudotumour within five years. The cause is unknown and is probably multifactorial. There may be a toxic reaction to an excess of particulate metal wear debris or a hypersensitivity reaction to a normal amount of metal debris. We are concerned that with time the incidence of these pseudotumours may increase. Further investigation is required to define their cause.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1602 - 1607
1 Dec 2007
Beard DJ Pandit H Ostlere S Jenkins C Dodd CAF Murray DW

Anterior knee pain and/or radiological evidence of degeneration of the patellofemoral joint are considered to be contraindications to unicompartmental knee replacement. The aim of this study was to determine whether this is the case.

Between January 2000 and September 2003, in 100 knees (91 patients) in which Oxford unicompartmental knee replacements were undertaken for anteromedial osteoarthritis, pre-operative anterior knee pain and the radiological status of the patellofemoral joint were defined using the Altman and Ahlback systems. Outcome was evaluated at two years with the Oxford knee score and the American Knee Society score.

Pre-operatively 54 knees (54%) had anterior knee pain. The clinical outcome was independent of the presence or absence of pre-operative anterior knee pain. Degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint were seen in 54 patients (54%) on the skyline radiographs, including ten knees (10%) with joint space obliteration. Patients with medial patellofemoral degeneration had a similar outcome to those without. For some outcome measures patients with lateral patellofemoral degeneration had a worse score than those without, but these patients still had a good outcome, with a mean Oxford knee score of 37.6 (SD 9.5). These results show that neither anterior knee pain nor radiologically-demonstrated medial patellofemoral joint degeneration should be considered a contraindication to Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement. With lateral patellofemoral degeneration the situation is less well defined and caution should be observed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1253 - 1255
1 Sep 2005
Alam A Willett K Ostlere S

Incomplete intertrochanteric fractures do not extend across to the medial femoral cortex and are stable, without rotational deformity or shortening of the lower limb. The aim of our study was to establish whether they can be successfully managed conservatively. A total of 68 patients over a five-year period presented with a suspected fracture of the femoral neck and underwent an MRI scan for further assessment. From these, we retrospectively reviewed eight patients with normal plain radiographs but with an incomplete, intertrochanteric fracture on MRI scan. Five were managed conservatively and three operatively.

The mean length of hospital stay was 16 days for the conservatively-treated group and 15 days for those who underwent surgery; this was not statistically significant (p > 0.5) and all patients were mobilised on discharge. Although five patients were readmitted at a mean of 3.2 years after discharge, none had progressed to a complete fracture. We believe that patients with incomplete intertrochanteric fractures should be considered for conservative treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 1 | Pages 49 - 52
1 Jan 1993
Spiers A Meagher T Ostlere S Wilson D Dodd C

We made a prospective study of 58 patients with suspected internal derangement of the knee. They were examined by magnetic resonance imaging using 3-D gradient echo intermediate-weighted studies before having an arthroscopy. The preoperative clinical assessment was found to have a diagnostic sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 43%, compared with 100% and 63% respectively for magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy confirmed the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of internal derangement but the results for articular cartilage lesions were much less good, with a sensitivity of only 18% but a specificity of 100%. Acceptance of the magnetic resonance imaging findings could have resulted in a 29% reduction in the number of arthroscopies without missing any significant meniscal lesion.