header advert
Results 1 - 13 of 13
Results per page:


To evaluate mid-to long-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of endoprosthetic reconstruction after resection of malignant tumours arising around the knee, and to investigate the risk factors for unfavourable PROMs.


The medical records of 75 patients who underwent surgery between 2000 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed, and 44 patients who were alive and available for follow-up (at a mean of 9.7 years postoperatively) were included in the study. Leg length discrepancy was measured on whole-leg radiographs, and functional assessment was performed with PROMs (Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) and Comprehensive Outcome Measure for Musculoskeletal Oncology Lower Extremity (COMMON-LE)) with two different aspects. The thresholds for unfavourable PROMs were determined using anchor questions regarding satisfaction, and the risk factors for unfavourable PROMs were investigated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 767 - 774
1 Jul 2022
Nakashima Y Ishibashi S Kitamura K Yamate S Motomura G Hamai S Ikemura S Fujii M


Although periacetabular osteotomies are widely used for the treatment of symptomatic dysplastic hips, long-term surgical outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are still unclear. Accordingly, we assessed hip survival and PROMs at 20 years after transpositional osteotomy of the acetabulum (TOA).


A total of 172 hips in 159 patients who underwent TOA were followed up at a mean of 21.02 years (16.6 to 24.6) postoperatively. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess survivorship with an endpoint of total hip arthroplasty (THA). PROMs included the visual analogue scale (VAS) Satisfaction, VAS Pain, Oxford Hip Score (OHS), and Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12). Thresholds for favourable outcomes for OHS (≥ 42) and FJS-12 (≥ 51) were obtained using the receiver operating characteristic curve with VAS Satisfaction ≥ 50 and VAS Pain < 20 as anchors.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 11 | Pages 761 - 767
1 Nov 2020
Hada M Mizu-uchi H Okazaki K Murakami K Kaneko T Higaki H Nakashima Y


This study aims to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope (PTS) on knee kinematics involved in the post-cam mechanism in bi-cruciate stabilized (BCS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using computer simulation.


In total, 11 different PTS (0° to 10°) values were simulated to evaluate the effect of PTS on anterior post-cam contact conditions and knee kinematics in BCS TKA during weight-bearing stair climbing (from 86° to 6° of knee flexion). Knee kinematics were expressed as the lowest points of the medial and lateral femoral condyles on the surface of the tibial insert, and the anteroposterior translation of the femoral component relative to the tibial insert.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 7 | Pages 360 - 367
1 Jul 2020
Kawahara S Hara T Sato T Kitade K Shimoto T Nakamura T Mawatari T Higaki H Nakashima Y


Appropriate acetabular component placement has been proposed for prevention of postoperative dislocation in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Manual placements often cause outliers in spite of attempts to insert the component within the intended safe zone; therefore, some surgeons routinely evaluate intraoperative pelvic radiographs to exclude excessive acetabular component malposition. However, their evaluation is often ambiguous in case of the tilted or rotated pelvic position. The purpose of this study was to develop the computational analysis to digitalize the acetabular component orientation regardless of the pelvic tilt or rotation.


Intraoperative pelvic radiographs of 50 patients who underwent THA were collected retrospectively. The 3D pelvic bone model and the acetabular component were image-matched to the intraoperative pelvic radiograph. The radiological anteversion (RA) and radiological inclination (RI) of the acetabular component were calculated and those measurement errors from the postoperative CT data were compared relative to those of the 2D measurements. In addition, the intra- and interobserver differences of the image-matching analysis were evaluated.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 2 | Pages 73 - 81
1 Feb 2017
Ishihara K Okazaki K Akiyama T Akasaki Y Nakashima Y


Osteophytes are products of active endochondral and intramembranous ossification, and therefore could theoretically provide significant efficacy as bone grafts. In this study, we compared the bone mineralisation effectiveness of osteophytes and cancellous bone, including their effects on secretion of growth factors and anabolic effects on osteoblasts.


Osteophytes and cancellous bone obtained from human patients were transplanted onto the calvaria of severe combined immunodeficient mice, with Calcein administered intra-peritoneally for fluorescent labelling of bone mineralisation. Conditioned media were prepared using osteophytes and cancellous bone, and growth factor concentration and effects of each graft on proliferation, differentiation and migration of osteoblastic cells were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, MTS ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium)) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and migration assays.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1449 - 1456
1 Nov 2011
Fujii M Nakashima Y Yamamoto T Mawatari T Motomura G Iwamoto Y Noguchi Y

In order to clarify how intra-articular lesions influence the survival of a periacetabular osteotomy in patients with dysplasia of the hip, we performed an observational study of 121 patients (121 hips) who underwent a transposition osteotomy of the acetabulum combined with an arthroscopy. Their mean age was 40.2 years (13 to 64) and the mean follow-up was 9.9 years (2 to 18). Labral and cartilage degeneration tended to originate from the anterosuperior part of the acetabulum, followed by the femoral side. In all, eight hips (6.6%) had post-operative progression to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 4 changes, and these hips were associated with the following factors: moderate osteoarthritis, decreased width of the joint space, joint incongruity, and advanced intra-articular lesions (subchondral bone exposure in the cartilage and a full-thickness labral tear). Multivariate analysis indicated subchondral bone exposure on the femoral head as an independent risk factor for progression of osteoarthritis (p = 0.003). In hips with early stage osteoarthritis, femoral subchondral bone exposure was a risk factor for progression of the grade of osteoarthritis.

Although the outcome of transposition osteotomy of the acetabulum was satisfactory, post-operative progression of osteoarthritis occurred at a high rate in hips with advanced intra-articular lesions, particularly in those where the degenerative process had reached the point of femoral subchondral bone exposure.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 3 | Pages 364 - 369
1 Mar 2011
Suzuki O Sunagawa T Yokota K Nakashima Y Shinomiya R Nakanishi K Ochi M

The transfer of part of the ulnar nerve to the musculocutaneous nerve, first described by Oberlin, can restore flexion of the elbow following brachial plexus injury. In this study we evaluated the additional benefits and effectiveness of quantitative electrodiagnosis to select a donor fascicle. Eight patients who had undergone transfer of a simple fascicle of the ulnar nerve to the motor branch of the musculocutaneous nerve were evaluated. In two early patients electrodiagnosis had not been used. In the remaining six patients, however, all fascicles of the ulnar nerve were separated and electrodiagnosis was performed after stimulation with a commercially available electromyographic system. In these procedures, recording electrodes were placed in flexor carpi ulnaris and the first dorsal interosseous. A single fascicle in the flexor carpi ulnaris in which a high amplitude had been recorded was selected as a donor and transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve. In the two patients who had not undergone electrodiagnosis, the recovery of biceps proved insufficient for normal use. Conversely, in the six patients in whom quantitative electrodiagnosis was used, elbow flexion recovered to an M4 level.

Quantitative intra-operative electrodiagnosis is an effective method of selecting a favourable donor fascicle during the Oberlin procedure. Moreover, fascicles showing a high-amplitude in reading flexor carpi ulnaris are donor nerves that can restore normal elbow flexion without intrinsic loss.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 184 - 187
1 Feb 2011
Motomura G Yamamoto T Yamaguchi R Ikemura S Nakashima Y Mawatari T Iwamoto Y

In order to investigate the mechanisms of collapse in osteonecrosis of the femoral head, we examined which part of the femoral head was the key point of a collapse and whether a collapsed region was associated with the size of the necrotic lesion. Using 30 consecutive surgically removed femoral heads we retrospectively analysed whole serial cut sections, specimen photographs, specimen radiographs and histological sections.

In all of the femoral heads, collapse consistently involved a fracture at the lateral boundary of the necrotic lesion. Histologically, the fractures occurred at the junction between the thickened trabeculae of the reparative zone and the necrotic bone trabeculae. When the medial boundary of the necrotic lesion was located lateral to the fovea of the femoral head, 18 of 19 femoral heads collapsed in the subchondral region. By contrast, when the medial boundary was located medial to the fovea, collapse in the subchondral region was observed in four of 11 femoral heads (p = 0.0011). We found that collapse began at the lateral boundary of the necrotic lesion and that the size of the necrotic lesion seemed to contribute to its distribution.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 781 - 786
1 Jun 2010
Zhao G Yamamoto T Ikemura S Motomura G Mawatari T Nakashima Y Iwamoto Y

We investigated the factors related to the radiological outcome of a transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy in patients with osteonecrosis of the hip. We reviewed 73 hips in 62 patients with a mean follow-up of 12.4 years (5 to 31.1). There were 28 men and 34 women, with a mean age of 33.3 years (15 to 68) at the time of surgery. The 73 hips were divided into two groups according to their radiological findings: group 1 showed progression of collapse and/or joint-space narrowing; group 2 had neither progressive collapse nor joint-space narrowing. Both of these factors and the radiological outcomes were analysed by a stepwise discriminant analysis. A total of 12 hips were categorised as group 1 and 61 as group 2. Both the post-operative intact ratio and the localisation of the necrotic lesion correlated with the radiological outcome. The cut-off point of the postoperative intact ratio to prevent the progression of collapse was 33.6%, and the cut-off point to prevent both the progression of collapse and joint-space narrowing was 41.9%.

The results of this study indicate that a post-operative intact ratio of 33.0% is necessary if a satisfactory outcome is to be achieved after this varus osteotomy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 725 - 729
1 Jun 2007
Ikemura S Yamamoto T Jingushi S Nakashima Y Mawatari T Iwamoto Y

Transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy was designed to avoid some of the disadvantages of varus wedge osteotomy, such as post-operative leg-length discrepancy. In this retrospective study we investigated the leg-length discrepancy and clinical outcome after transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy undertaken in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Between January 1993 and March 2004, this osteotomy was performed in 42 hips of 36 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. There were 15 males and 21 females with a mean age at surgery of 34 years (15 to 68). The mean follow-up was 5.9 years (2.0 to 12.5). The mean pre-operative Harris hip score was 64.0 (43 to 85) points, which improved to a mean of 88.7 (58 to 100) points at final follow-up. The mean varus angulation post-operatively was 25° (12° to 38°) and the post-operative mean leg-length discrepancy was 13 mm (4 to 25). The post-operative leg-length discrepancy showed a strong correlation with varus angulation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient; r = 0.9530, p < 0.0001), which may be useful for predicting the leg-length discrepancy which can occur even after transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 4 | Pages 705 - 709
1 Jul 1999
Hara T Hayashi K Nakashima Y Kanemaru T Iwamoto Y

We have studied the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating in 15 ovariectomised and 15 normal rats which had had a sham procedure. Twenty-four weeks after operation, HA-coated implants were inserted into the intramedullary canal of the right femur and uncoated implants into the left femur. The prostheses were removed four weeks after implantation. Twelve specimens in each group had mechanical push-out tests. Sagittal sections of the other three were evaluated by SEM.

The bone mineral density (BMD) of the dissected left tibia was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The difference in BMD between the control and ovariectomised tibiae was 35.01 mg/cm2 (95% CI, 26.60 to 43.42). The push-out strength of the HA-coated implants was higher than that of the uncoated implants in both groups (p < 0.0001), but the HA-coated implants of the ovariectomised group had a reduction in push-out strength of 40.3% compared with the control group (p < 0.0001).

Our findings suggest that HA-coated implants may improve the fixation of a cementless total hip prosthesis but that the presence of osteoporosis may limit the magnitude of this benefit.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 1 | Pages 155 - 162
1 Jan 1999
Nakashima Y Sun D Trindade MCD Chun LE Song Y Goodman SB Schurman DJ Maloney WJ Smith RL

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration.

We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1α expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1α in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1α were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1α inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples.

Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 4 | Pages 694 - 700
1 Jul 1998
Nakashima Y Sun D Maloney WJ Goodman SB Schurman DJ Smith RL

We exposed human macrophages isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors to metal and bone-cement particles from 0.2 to 10 μm in size.

Zymography showed that macrophages exposed to titanium alloy and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles released a 92- and 72-kDa gelatinase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Western immunoblotting confirmed that the 92- and 72-kDa gelatinolytic activities corresponded to matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-9, MMP-2), respectively. Western immunoblotting also indicated that titanium alloy and PMMA particles increased the release of MMP-1. Northern blotting showed elevated mRNA signal levels for MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 after exposure to both types of particle. Collagenolytic activity also increased in the macrophage culture medium in response to both types of particle.

Our findings support the hypothesis that macrophages release MMPs in proportion to the amount of particulate debris within periprosthetic tissues.