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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1527 - 1534
3 Nov 2020
Orita K Minoda Y Sugama R Ohta Y Ueyama H Takemura S Nakamura H


Vitamin E-infused highly cross-linked polyethylene (E1) has recently been introduced in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An in vitro wear simulator study showed that E1 reduced polyethylene wear. However there is no published information regarding in vivo wear. Previous reports suggest that newly introduced materials which reduce in vitro polyethylene wear do not necessarily reduce in vivo polyethylene wear. To assist in the evaluation of the newly introduced material before widespread use, we established an in vivo polyethylene wear particle analysis for TKA. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo polyethylene wear particle generation between E1 and conventional polyethylene (ArCom) in TKA.


A total of 34 knees undergoing TKA (17 each with ArCom or E1) were investigated. Except for the polyethylene insert material, the prostheses used for both groups were identical. Synovial fluid was obtained at a mean of 3.4 years (SD 1.3) postoperatively. The in vivo polyethylene wear particles were isolated from the synovial fluid using a previously validated method and examined by scanning electron microscopy.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 10 - 18
1 Jun 2020
Ueyama H Kanemoto N Minoda Y Taniguchi Y Nakamura H


The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of perioperative essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation to prevent rectus femoris muscle atrophy and facilitate early recovery of function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


The study involved 60 patients who underwent unilateral TKA for primary knee osteo-arthritis (OA). This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized control trial with patients randomly allocated to two groups, 30 patients each: the essential amino acid supplementation (9 g daily) and placebo (lactose powder, 9 g daily) groups. Supplementation and placebo were provided from one week before to two weeks after surgery. The area of the rectus femoris muscle were measured by ultrasound imaging one month before surgery and one, two, three, and four weeks postoperatively. The serum albumin level, a visual analogue knee pain score, and mobility were also measured at each time point. The time to recovery of activities of daily living (ADLs) was recorded. Postoperative nutrition and physiotherapy were identical in both groups.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 5 | Pages 559 - 564
1 May 2019
Takemura S Minoda Y Sugama R Ohta Y Nakamura S Ueyama H Nakamura H


The use of vitamin E-infused highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) in total knee prostheses is controversial. In this paper we have compared the clinical and radiological results between conventional polyethylene and vitamin E-infused HXLPE inserts in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Patients and Methods

The study included 200 knees (175 patients) that underwent TKA using the same total knee prostheses. In all, 100 knees (77 patients) had a vitamin E-infused HXLPE insert (study group) and 100 knees (98 patients) had a conventional polyethylene insert (control group). There were no significant differences in age, sex, diagnosis, preoperative knee range of movement (ROM), and preoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) between the two groups. Clinical and radiological results were evaluated at two years postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4 | Pages 554 - 560
1 Apr 2017
Tamai K Suzuki A Takahashi S Akhgar J Rahmani MS Hayashi K Ohyama S Nakamura H


We aimed to evaluate the temperature around the nerve root during drilling of the lamina and to determine whether irrigation during drilling can reduce the chance of nerve root injury.

Materials and Methods

Lumbar nerve roots were exposed to frictional heat by high-speed drilling of the lamina in a live rabbit model, with saline (room temperature (RT) or chilled saline) or without saline (control) irrigation. We measured temperatures surrounding the nerve root and made histological evaluations.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 794 - 798
1 Jun 2010
Minoda Y Ikebuchi M Kobayashi A Iwaki H Inori F Nakamura H

Bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral component has been reported to decrease after total knee replacement (TKR) because of stress shielding. Our aim was to determine whether a cemented mobile-bearing component reduced the post-operative loss of BMD. In our study 28 knees receiving a cemented fixed-bearing TKR were matched with 28 receiving a cemented mobile-bearing TKR. They underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, pre-operatively and at three weeks and at three, six, 12, 18 and 24 months post-operatively. The patients were not taking medication to improve the BMD.

The pre-operative differences in the BMD of the femoral neck, wrist, lumbar spine and knee in the two groups were not significant. The BMD of the femur decreased postoperatively in the fixed-bearing group, but not the mobile-bearing group. The difference in the post-operative change in the BMD in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 18 and 24 months.

Our findings show that a cemented mobile-bearing TKR has a favourable effect on the BMD of the distal femur after TKR in the short term. Further study is required to determine the long-term effects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1606 - 1609
1 Dec 2006
Seki M Nakamura H Kono H

We studied 21 patients with a spontaneous palsy of the anterior interosseous nerve. There were 11 men and 10 women with a mean age at onset of 39 years (17 to 65).

Pain around the elbow or another region (forearm, shoulder, upper arm, systemic arthralgia) was present in 17 patients and typically lasted for two to three weeks. It had settled within six weeks in every case. In ten cases the palsy developed as the pain settled. A complete palsy of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger was seen in 13 cases and an isolated palsy of flexor pollicis longus in five. All patients were treated without operation. The mean time to initial muscle contraction was nine months (2 to 18) in palsy of the flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger, and ten months (1 to 24) for a complete palsy of flexor pollicis longus. An improvement in muscle strength to British Medical Research Council grade 4 or better was seen in all 15 patients with a complete palsy of the flexor digitorum profundus and in 16 of 18 with a complete palsy of flexor pollicis longus.

There was no significant correlation between the duration of pain and either the time to initial muscle contraction or final muscle strength. Prolonged pain was not always associated with a poor outcome but the age of the patient when the palsy developed was strongly correlated. Recovery occurred within 12 months in patients under the age of 40 years who achieved a final British Medical Research Council grade of 4 or better. Surgical decompression does not appear to be indicated for young patients with this condition.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1689 - 1693
1 Dec 2005
Ikema Y Tohyama H Nakamura H Kanaya F Yasuda K

We compared the biological characteristics of extrinsic fibroblasts infiltrating the patellar tendon with those of normal, intrinsic fibroblasts in the normal tendon in vitro. Infiltrative fibroblasts were isolated from the patellar tendons of rabbits six weeks after an in situ freeze-thaw treatment which killed the intrinsic fibroblasts. These intrinsic cells were also isolated from the patellar tendons of rabbits which had not been so treated.

Proliferation and invasive migration into the patellar tendon was significantly slower for infiltrative fibroblasts than for normal tendon fibroblasts. Flow-cytometric analysis indicated that expression of α5β1 integrin at the cell surface was significantly lower in infiltrative fibroblasts than in normal tendon fibroblasts. The findings suggest that cellular proliferation and invasive migration of fibroblasts into the patellar tendon after necrosis are inferior to those of the normal fibroblasts. The inferior intrinsic properties of infiltrative fibroblasts may contribute to a slow remodelling process in the grafted tendon after ligament reconstruction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 5 | Pages 695 - 701
1 Jul 2000
Kawaguchi Y Kitagawa H Nakamura H Gejo R Kimura T

We recorded compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the diaphragm in 15 normal volunteers, nine patients with lesions of the lower cervical cord (C5 to C8), one completely quadriplegic patient (C6) and seven patients with lesions at a higher cervical level (C1 to C4). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve were carried out.

When the centre of the coil was placed on the interauricular line at a point 3 cm lateral to the vertex on the scalp, the CMAPs from the diaphragm had the largest amplitude and the shortest latency. There was no difference in the mean latency of the CMAPs recorded by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the normal volunteers and in the patients with lesions of the lower cervical cord. In the quadriplegic patient, the latency of the CMAPs was not delayed, but was prolonged in the patients with lesions at a higher level. Those evoked by electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve were not prolonged in the patients with higher lesions.

Our findings suggest that the prolongation of the latency by transcranial magnetic stimulation reflects dysfunction of the higher cervical cord. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve can detect the precise level of the lesion in the motor tract to the diaphragm.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1044 - 1049
1 Nov 1990
Horibe S Shino K Nagano J Nakamura H Tanaka M Ono K

In order to determine whether an allogeneic tendon could be used to replace an extra-articular ligament, the right medial collateral ligament from 11 adult dogs was replaced with a fresh-frozen allogeneic patellar tendon. At each of 3, 6, 15, 30 and 52 weeks postoperatively, one dog was killed for micro-angiographical and histological studies; at 52 weeks the remaining six dogs were killed for tensile testing. Micro-angiograms showed that the allogeneic tendon was revascularised with infiltration of the mesenchymal cells from the surrounding tissues and both ends of the graft. Histologically, the alignment of the fibroblasts and collagen bundles became more regular over time, without any immunological rejection. A biomechanical study performed at 52 weeks found no significant difference in stiffness or ultimate load between normal and reconstructed ligaments. Fresh-frozen allogeneic tendons are therefore considered useful for extra-articular ligament reconstruction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 4 | Pages 608 - 613
1 Aug 1987
Shino K Inoue M Horibe S Nakamura H Ono K

We have developed an apparatus to measure the anteroposterior stability of the knee to forces of up to 250 N, applied at 20 degrees of flexion. We measured anterior laxity at 200 N, anterior stiffness at 50 N and total laxity at +/- 200 N. A study of cadaveric knees revealed that the soft tissues surrounding the bones had a significant influence on the force-displacement curve, and emphasised that differences between injured and normal pairs of knees are much more important than the absolute values of the parameters. In 61 normal volunteers we found no significant left to right differences in anterior laxity at 200 N and anterior stiffness at 50 N. In 92 patients with unilateral anterior cruciate deficiency there were significant differences (p less than 0.0005) in anterior laxity, anterior stiffness and total laxity, the injured-normal differences averaging 6.7 mm, 1.3 N/mm, and 8.1 mm respectively.