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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1264 - 1264
1 Sep 2009
Mulholland R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 4 | Pages 591 - 591
1 Apr 2005
Mulholland R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 1 | Pages 48 - 52
1 Jan 1997
Grevitt M Khazim R Webb J Mulholland R Shepperd J

The Short Form-36 (SF-36) health questionnaire has been put forward as a general measure of outcome in health care and has been evaluated in several recent studies in the UK. We report its use in three groups of patients after spinal operations and have compared it with the Oswestry and Low Back Pain disability scales.

There was a significant correlation between all variables of the SF-36 and the low-back scores. The mental-health items had the weakest correlation. Our study shows that the SF-36 questionnaire is valid and has internal consistency when applied to these patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 4 | Pages 626 - 629
1 Jul 1995
Grevitt M McLaren A Shackleford I Mulholland R

We treated 137 patients with symptomatic lumbar disc prolapse by automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy (APLD). Seventeen (12%) required further operation. At a mean follow-up of 55 months, the success rate was 45%. Of those who had APLD alone, 52% were graded as either excellent or good. In this group, 76% were employed, and the mean Oswestry score was 28.2%. One-third of those patients initially rated as successful had deterioration in symptoms and increased disability from back pain. The Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire revealed that these patients had a chronic ill-health profile.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 4 | Pages 517 - 519
1 Jul 1994
Mulholland R

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 70-B, Issue 5 | Pages 717 - 722
1 Nov 1988
Szypryt E Twining P Wilde G Mulholland R Worthington B

Forty-two consecutive patients with suspected lumbar disc protrusions were studied prospectively to compare the diagnostic accuracy of low-field strength MRI with that of radiculography. Thirty patients subsequently underwent surgical exploration at 33 levels and the operative findings were compared to both methods of diagnostic imaging. All patients had MRI studies, whilst 29 patients also had radiculography. Both studies were evaluated without prior knowledge of the clinical signs, operative findings or the results of other imaging techniques. MRI predicted the correct diagnosis in 29 of the 33 levels explored, an accuracy of 88%. All discs proven to be abnormal demonstrated a reduced signal from the nucleus pulposus. There were two false positive results and two doubtful cases but no false negatives. Radiculography predicted the correct diagnosis in 24 of 32 levels explored, an accuracy of 75%. There were two false positive results, five doubtfuls and one false negative. The overall accuracy when both tests were considered rose to 94%. Of the remaining 12 patients all except one showed good correlation between the MRI and radiculographic findings. These results indicate that low field strength MRI is slightly better than radiculography in diagnosing lumbar disc protrusions.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 5 | Pages 699 - 703
1 Nov 1987
Gibson M Szypryt E Buckley J Worthington B Mulholland R

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the appearance of the spine in 20 adolescents with proven symptomatic intervertebral disc herniations with that in 20 asymptomatic patients who acted as controls. Abnormality in the signal from the nucleus pulposus of one or more discs was present in all patients, while only four of the 20 controls had any abnormal signals. In all the patients the symptomatic disc produced an abnormal signal and in most a herniated fragment of the nucleus pulposus was identified. Fifteen of the 20 patients had multiple-disc abnormality: six had three abnormal discs and nine had two. This suggests there was an underlying diathesis in patients who later developed disc herniation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 1 | Pages 141 - 144
1 Jan 1987
Szypryt E Morris D Mulholland R

Surgical treatment of hydatid bone disease is rarely completely successful because radical excision is only possible at certain sites and secondary infection frequently occurs. Antihelmintic drugs have in the past been only palliative due to poor absorption and consequent low concentration in serum or cysts. We report five patients with Echinococcus granulosus infestation treated with a new chemotherapeutic agent albendazole; in two it was given postoperatively, in two pre-operatively and one child is being followed expectantly. We believe that a combination of chemotherapy and surgery may be efficacious in the treatment of hydatid bone disease.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 68-B, Issue 5 | Pages 719 - 723
1 Nov 1986
Gibson M Buckley J Mulholland R Worthington B

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine produces images which reflect the chemical composition of the intervertebral disc. We have conducted a prospective study of the serial changes in the MRI appearance of the intervertebral disc after chemonucleolysis with the enzyme chymopapain. Fourteen patients were studied after single-level chemonucleolysis and the results compared with a control group of 17 discs in six patients who had diagnostic discography without enzyme insertion. A consistent pattern of gradual loss of signal from the nucleus pulposus culminating in complete loss of nuclear signal was seen in all cases after chemonucleolysis. Chymopapain therefore produced MRI changes analogous with premature gross disc degeneration. The rate at which this occurred varied; complete loss of signal took at least six weeks. Transitory minor end-plate changes were present in five patients, probably representing a mild chemical discitis. No similar changes were seen in the discography group.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 68-B, Issue 3 | Pages 369 - 373
1 May 1986
Gibson M Buckley J Mawhinney R Mulholland R Worthington B

The lumbar spines of 22 patients were examined for disc degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and by discography. The results from 50 intervertebral discs visualised by both techniques were independently assessed and graded on a five-point scale from normality to gross degeneration and then compared. In 44 discs the results agreed. Of the six discs which gave differing results, four discrepancies were due to observer error and two to incorrect placement of the discographic needle. MRI was shown to be more accurate than discography in the diagnosis of disc degeneration. It has several major advantages, which should make it the investigation of choice.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 66-B, Issue 5 | Pages 711 - 715
1 Nov 1984
Crawshaw C Kean D Mulholland R Worthington B Finlay D Hawkes R Gyngell M Moore W

The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the diagnosis of radicular pain due to lateral canal stenosis in 21 patients is reported. NMR was able to distinguish normal intervertebral discs from degenerate discs, and NMR evidence of reduction of epidural fat was more reliable than radiculography in identifying lateral root entrapment. NMR is an important advance in the investigation of lumbar radiculopathies.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 65-B, Issue 2 | Pages 140 - 143
1 Mar 1983
Fyfe I Henry A Mulholland R

A study of cadaveric vertebral biopsy and a review of 100 clinical biopsies has shown that needles and trephines producing tissue specimens of two millimetres or more in diameter can be expected to give a high degree of diagnostic accuracy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was a more useful screening investigation than were estimations of serum alkaline phosphatase. The complications are described. It is suggested that patients with painful thoracic metastases and evidence of progressive cord compression should have early decompression after open biopsy if further neurological compromise is to be prevented.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 65-B, Issue 2 | Pages 153 - 156
1 Mar 1983
Merriam W Burwell R Mulholland R Pearson J Webb J

Modern anthropometric techniques were used to investigate two groups of subjects, one with various syndromes associated with pain in the lower back and the other a control group. Analysis confirmed previous reports that people prone to pain in the back have a greater standing height than people who are not. To investigate this further two new components of height, namely pelvic height and suprapelvic height, were calculated in addition to the established calculation of subischial height. Consecutive components, namely suprapelvic height, pelvic height and subischial height, together constituted the standing height of a subject. The main finding of this investigation was that the relatively large standing height of the subject prone to back pain was due only to the pelvic component.