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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 4 | Pages 193 - 200
23 Apr 2024
Reynolds A Doyle R Boughton O Cobb J Muirhead-Allwood S Jeffers J


Manual impaction, with a mallet and introducer, remains the standard method of installing cementless acetabular cups during total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aims to quantify the accuracy and precision of manual impaction strikes during the seating of an acetabular component. This understanding aims to help improve impaction surgical techniques and inform the development of future technologies.


Posterior approach THAs were carried out on three cadavers by an expert orthopaedic surgeon. An instrumented mallet and introducer were used to insert cementless acetabular cups. The motion of the mallet, relative to the introducer, was analyzed for a total of 110 strikes split into low-, medium-, and high-effort strikes. Three parameters were extracted from these data: strike vector, strike offset, and mallet face alignment.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 7 | Pages 386 - 393
1 Jul 2020
Doyle R van Arkel RJ Muirhead-Allwood S Jeffers JRT


Cementless acetabular components rely on press-fit fixation for initial stability. In certain cases, initial stability is more difficult to obtain (such as during revision). No current study evaluates how a surgeon’s impaction technique (mallet mass, mallet velocity, and number of strikes) may affect component fixation. This study seeks to answer the following research questions: 1) how does impaction technique affect a) bone strain generation and deterioration (and hence implant stability) and b) seating in different density bones?; and 2) can an impaction technique be recommended to minimize risk of implant loosening while ensuring seating of the acetabular component?


A custom drop tower was used to simulate surgical strikes seating acetabular components into synthetic bone. Strike velocity and drop mass were varied. Synthetic bone strain was measured using strain gauges and stability was assessed via push-out tests. Polar gap was measured using optical trackers.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1370 - 1375
1 Oct 2010
Muirhead-Allwood S Sandiford NA Skinner JA Hua J Muirhead W Kabir C Walker PS

We prospectively evaluated the long-term outcome of 158 consecutive patients who underwent revision total hip replacement using uncemented computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacture femoral components. There were 97 men and 61 women. Their mean age was 63.1 years (34.6 to 85.9). The mean follow-up was 10.8 years (10 to 12).

The mean Oxford, Harris and Western Ontario and McMaster hip scores improved from 41.1, 44.2 and 52.4 pre-operatively to 18.2, 89.3 and 12.3, respectively (p < 0.0001, for each). Six patients required further surgery. The overall survival of the femoral component was 97% (95% confidence interval 94.5 to 99.7). These results are comparable to those of previously published reports for revision total hip replacement using either cemented or uncemented components.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1079 - 1084
1 Aug 2010
Muirhead-Allwood S Sandiford N Skinner JA Hua J Kabir C Walker PS

We present the 10- to 17-year results of 112 computer-assisted design computer-assisted manufacture femoral components. The total hip replacements were performed between 1992 and 1998 in 111 patients, comprising 53 men and 58 women. Their mean age was 46.2 years (24.6 to 62.2) with a mean follow-up of 13 years (10 to 17). The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 42.4 (7 to 99) to 90.3 (38 to 100), the mean Oxford Hip Score from 43.1 (12 to 59) to 18.2 (12 to 51) and the mean Western Ontario MacMasters University Osteoarthritis Index score from 57.0 (7 to 96) to 11.9 (0 to 85). There was one revision due to failure of the acetabular component but no failures of the femoral component. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening. The worst-case survival in this cohort of custom femoral components at 13.2 years follow-up was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 95 to 99). Overall survival of this series of total hip replacements was 97.3% (95% confidence interval 95 to 99).

These results are comparable with the best medium- to long-term results for femoral components used in primary total hip replacement with any means of fixation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 835 - 842
1 Jun 2009
Hart AJ Skinner JA Winship P Faria N Kulinskaya E Webster D Muirhead-Allwood S Aldam CH Anwar H Powell JJ

We carried out a cross-sectional study with analysis of the demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing, ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene hip replacements. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between metal-on-metal replacements, the levels of cobalt and chromium ions in whole blood and the absolute numbers of circulating lymphocytes. We recruited 164 patients (101 men and 63 women) with hip replacements, 106 with metal-on-metal hips and 58 with non-metal-on-metal hips, aged < 65 years, with a pre-operative diagnosis of osteoarthritis and no pre-existing immunological disorders.

Laboratory-defined T-cell lymphopenia was present in13 patients (15%) (CD8+ lymphopenia) and 11 patients (13%) (CD3+ lymphopenia) with unilateral metal-on-metal hips. There were significant differences in the absolute CD8+ lymphocyte subset counts for the metal-on-metal groups compared with each control group (p-values ranging between 0.024 and 0.046). Statistical modelling with analysis of covariance using age, gender, type of hip replacement, smoking and circulating metal ion levels, showed that circulating levels of metal ions, especially cobalt, explained the variation in absolute lymphocyte counts for almost all lymphocyte subsets.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 5 | Pages 883 - 883
1 Sep 1997
Muirhead-Allwood S

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 701 - 702
1 Jul 1997
Muirhead-Allwood S