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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 80 - 85
1 Jan 2012
Malone AA Sanchez JS Adams R Morrey B

We report the effectiveness of revision of total elbow replacement by re-cementing. Between 1982 and 2004, 53 elbows in 52 patients were treated with re-cementing of a total elbow replacement into part or all of the existing cement mantle or into the debrided host-bone interface, without the use of structural bone augmentation or a custom prosthesis. The original implant revision was still in situ and functional in 42 of 53 elbows (79%) at a mean of 94.5 months (26 to 266) after surgery. In 31 of these 42 elbows (74%) the Mayo Elbow Performance Score was good or excellent. Overall, of the 53 elbows, 18 (34%) required re-operation, ten (19%) for loosening. A classification system was developed to identify those not suitable for revision by this technique, and using this we have showed that successful re-implantation is statistically correlated to properly addressing the bone deficiency for both the humeral (p = 0.005) and the ulnar (p = 0.039) components.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 6 | Pages 865 - 869
1 Nov 1995
McGrory B Morrey B Cahalan T An K Cabanela M

At a minimum of one year after operation, we studied 64 patients with 86 total hip arthroplasties (THA) by standard anteroposterior hip and pelvic radiographs and measurement of range of motion and of isometric abduction strength. The femoral offset correlated positively with the range of abduction (p = 0.046). Abduction strength correlated positively with both femoral offset (p = 0.0001) and the length of the abductor lever arm (p = 0.005). Using multiple regression, abduction strength correlated with height (p = 0.017), gender (p = 0.0005), range of flexion (p = 0.047) and the abductor lever arm (p = 0.060). Our findings suggest that greater femoral offset after THA allows both an increased range of abduction and greater abductor strength.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 1 | Pages 67 - 72
1 Jan 1995
Morrey B Adams R

We have reviewed 36 of 39 consecutive patients with an average age of 68 years who had semiconstrained elbow replacement for distal humeral nonunion at an average follow-up of 50.4 months (24 to 127). Of these, 31 (86%) had satisfactory results, three (8%) had fair, and two (6%) had poor results; 32 patients (88%) had moderate or severe pain before and 91% had no or only mild discomfort after the procedure. Motion had improved from a mean arc of 29 degrees to 103 degrees before operation to 16 degrees to 127 degrees after surgery. All five flail extremities were stable at last assessment. There were seven complications (18%): two patients had deep infection, two had particulate synovitis, two had ulnar neuropathy and one had worn polyethylene bushes. Five of these seven, excluding the two with transient nueropathy, required reoperation (13%). Joint replacement arthroplasty can be a safe and reliable treatment for this difficult clinical condition, seen most commonly in elderly patients. This is a significant advance, since repeated osteosynthesis has been shown to be ineffective in most patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 5 | Pages 834 - 836
1 Sep 1994
Itoi E Newman Kuechle D Morrey B An K

The stabilising effects on the glenohumeral joint of each of the rotator-cuff muscles and of the biceps were studied with the arm in abduction and external rotation in 13 cadaver shoulders. The muscles were loaded one at a time with forces proportional to their cross-sectional areas. We recorded the positions of the humeral head before and after the application to the humerus of an anterior force of 1.5 kg. When the capsule was intact, the anterior displacement with the subscapularis loaded was significantly larger than with the other muscles loaded (p = 0.0009). With the capsule vented, the displacement with the biceps loaded was significantly smaller than that with the subscapularis loaded (p = 0.0052). After creating an imitation Bankart lesion, the displacement with the biceps loaded was significantly less than with any of the rotator-cuff muscles loaded (p = 0.0132). We conclude that in the intact shoulder, the subscapularis is the least important anterior stabiliser, and that the biceps becomes more important than the rotator-cuff muscles as stability from the capsuloligamentous structure decreases. Strengthening of the biceps as well as the rotator-cuff muscles should be part of the rehabilitation programme for anterior shoulder instability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 4 | Pages 627 - 635
1 Jul 1994
Papagelopoulos P Morrey B

We report the results in 24 consecutive patients treated from 1976 to 1991 for nonunion of olecranon fractures. Their mean age was 42 years, and the mean interval from fracture to treatment for nonunion was 19 months. Management was by rehabilitation and activity as tolerated for three, continued immobilisation for one, and operative treatment for 20. Operations included excision of the olecranon fragment (1), osteosynthesis (16), and joint replacement (3). Four patients also had distraction arthroplasty. At a mean follow-up of 18 months no patient had severe residual elbow pain but three had moderate and six had mild symptoms. The mean arc of motion was 98 degrees representing an average improvement of 11 degrees. Twelve patients had an excellent result, four good, six fair, and two a poor result. Union had been achieved in 15 of the 16 patients treated by osteosynthesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 1 | Pages 78 - 81
1 Jan 1994
Vanderwilde R Morrey B Melberg M Vinh T

The management of radial head fractures complicated by ligamentous disruption remains a matter of controversy. The use of a silicone radial head implant to provide temporary stability is thought to help to protect the ligaments during healing. The reported complications of long-term implantation of a silicone replacement include fracture, dislocation, synovitis, lymphadenitis and subchondral resorption. We now report one case in which an inflammatory process resulted in generalised cartilage degeneration. This has not previously been noted.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 75-B, Issue 4 | Pages 546 - 550
1 Jul 1993
Itoi E Kuechle D Newman Morrey B An K

We studied the contributions of the long and short heads of the biceps (LHB, SHB) to anterior stability in 13 cadaver shoulders. The LHB and SHB were replaced by spring devices and translation tests at 90 degrees abduction of the arm were performed by applying a 1.5 kg anterior force. The position of the humeral head was monitored by an electromagnetic tracking device with or without an anterior translational force; with 0 kg, 1.5 kg or 3 kg loads applied on either LHB or SHB tendons in 60 degrees, 90 degrees or 120 degrees of external rotation; and with the capsule intact, vented, or damaged by a Bankart lesion. The anterior displacement of the humeral head under 1.5 kg force was significantly decreased by both the LHB and SHB loading in all capsular conditions when the arm was in 60 degrees or 90 degrees of external rotation. At 120 degrees of external rotation, anterior displacement was significantly decreased by LHB and SHB loading only when there was a Bankart lesion. We conclude that LHB and SHB have similar functions as anterior stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint with the arm in abduction and external rotation, and that their role increases as shoulder stability decreases. Both heads of the biceps have been shown to have a stabilising function in resisting anterior head displacement, and consideration should therefore be given to strengthening the biceps during rehabilitation programmes for chronic anterior instability of the shoulder.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 3 | Pages 409 - 413
1 May 1992
Morrey B

Degenerative arthritis of the elbow is a poorly recognised condition, usually seen in a middle-aged man with an occupation or activity which involves the repetitive use of his dominant arm. Flexion contracture and pain at terminal extension are common presenting features. Fifteen patients were reviewed at a mean of 33 months after debridement by ulnohumeral arthroplasty. Fourteen had good relief of pain, elbow extension had improved by an average of 11 degrees and elbow flexion by 10 degrees. On an objective scale 12 of the 15 patients had good or excellent results and 13 (87%) felt that they were improved by the operation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 2 | Pages 297 - 299
1 Mar 1992
O'Driscoll S An K Korinek S Morrey B

We used 11 cadaver elbows and a three-dimensional electromagnetic tracking device to record elbow movements before and after implantation of a 'loose-hinged' elbow prosthesis (modified Coonrad). During simulated active motion there was a maximum of 2.7 degrees (+/- 1.5 degrees) varus/valgus laxity in the cadaver joints. This increased slightly after total elbow arthroplasty to 3.8 degrees (+/- 1.4 degrees). These values are lower than those recorded for the cadaver joints and for the prostheses at the limits of their varus/valgus displacements, indicating that both behave as 'semi-constrained' joints under physiological conditions. They suggest that the muscles absorb some of the forces and moments that in a constrained prosthesis would be transferred to the prosthesis-bone interface.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 4 | Pages 607 - 612
1 Jul 1991
Morrey B Adams R Bryan R

Fifty-three of 55 consecutive elbow replacements for post-traumatic arthritis were followed for a minimum of two years (mean 6.3, range 2 to 14.4). The patients presented difficult management problems, having undergone an average of two previous operations per joint; 22 joints had suffered prior complications; 18 had less than 50 degrees of flexion and six were flail. One of three versions of the Coonrad prosthesis was employed in all. During the follow-up period, 10 patients underwent 14 revision procedures for aseptic loosening; 38 elbows are currently without progressive radiolucent lines. In two patients an elbow had to be resected, one for deep infection and the other for bone resorption following a foreign-body reaction to titanium. The current design of the Coonrad prosthesis offers a reliable option for the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis but should be used only in carefully selected patients over the age of 60 years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 4 | Pages 613 - 617
1 Jul 1991
O'Driscoll S Horii E Carmichael S Morrey B

The anatomy of the cubital tunnel and its relationship to ulnar nerve compression is not well documented. In 27 cadaver elbows the proximal edge of the roof of the cubital tunnel was formed by a fibrous band that we call the cubital tunnel retinaculum (CTR). The band is about 4 mm wide, extending from the medial epicondyle to the olecranon, and perpendicular to the flexor carpi ulnaris aponeurosis. Variations in the CTR were classified into four types. In type 0 (n = 1) the CTR was absent. In type Ia (n = 17), the retinaculum was lax in extension and taut in full flexion. In type Ib (n = 6) it was tight in positions short of full flexion (90 degrees to 120 degrees). In type II (n = 3) it was replaced by a muscle, the anconeus epitrochlearis. The CTR appears to be a remnant of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle and its function is to hold the ulnar nerve in position. Variations in the anatomy of the CTR may explain certain types of ulnar neuropathy. Its absence (type 0 CTR) permits ulnar nerve displacement. Type Ia is normal and does not cause ulnar neuropathy. Type Ib can cause dynamic nerve compression with elbow flexion. Type II may be associated with static compression due to the bulk of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 5 | Pages 843 - 845
1 Sep 1990
Browne A Hoffmeyer P Tanaka S An K Morrey B

We studied the position and rotational changes associated with elevation of the glenohumeral joint, using a three-dimensional magnetic-field tracking system on nine fresh cadaveric shoulders. The plane of maximal arm elevation was shown to occur 23 degrees anterior to the plane of the scapula. Elevation in any plane anterior to the scapula required external humeral rotation, and maximal elevation was associated with approximately 35 degrees of external humeral rotation. Conversely, internal rotation was necessary for increased elevation posterior to the plane of the scapula. The observed effects of this rotation were to clear the humeral tuberosity from abutting beneath the acromion and to relax the inferior capsular ligamentous constraints. Measurement of the obligatory humeral rotation required for maximal elevation helps to explain the relationship of the limited elevation seen in adhesive capsulitis and after operations which limit external rotation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 4 | Pages 554 - 559
1 Aug 1989
Morrey B

Of 34 consecutive proximal tibial osteotomies for secondary degenerative arthritis in patients under 40 years of age, 33 were evaluated at least three years (mean 7.5 years) after operation. In all 73% were satisfactory, with four failures in 21 procedures in men and five failures in 12 procedures in women. The primary abnormalities were medial meniscectomy (11), medial and lateral meniscectomy (4), osteochondritis dissecans (3), osteochondritis dissecans with medial meniscectomy (4) and fracture (11). All four knees with both medial and lateral meniscectomy had unsatisfactory results despite obtaining anatomical alignment. Eight patients needed subsequent surgery; five of them had total knee replacement, four within four years of the osteotomy. Proximal tibial osteotomy in younger patients with secondary arthritis gives similar results to those for older patients with primary osteoarthritis. If it fails, this is generally within the first four years after the operation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 1 | Pages 89 - 92
1 Jan 1987
Pettine K Morrey B

Sixty-eight patients with 71 osteochondral fractures of the talus were evaluated an average of 7.5 years after the onset of symptoms to determine which factors influenced the final result. It was found that the type of fracture was the most important; delay in treatment also affected the result adversely. A scheme of treatment for each type of fracture is proposed.