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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 8 | Pages 631 - 637
10 Aug 2021
Realpe AX Blackstone J Griffin DR Bing AJF Karski M Milner SA Siddique M Goldberg A


A multicentre, randomized, clinician-led, pragmatic, parallel-group orthopaedic trial of two surgical procedures was set up to obtain high-quality evidence of effectiveness. However, the trial faced recruitment challenges and struggled to maintain recruitment rates over 30%, although this is not unusual for surgical trials. We conducted a qualitative study with the aim of gathering information about recruitment practices to identify barriers to patient consent and participation to an orthopaedic trial.


We collected 11 audio recordings of recruitment appointments and interviews of research team members (principal investigators and research nurses) from five hospitals involved in recruitment to an orthopaedic trial. We analyzed the qualitative data sets thematically with the aim of identifying aspects of informed consent and information provision that was either unclear, disrupted, or hindered trial recruitment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 3 | Pages 559 - 559
1 May 1999

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 6 | Pages 972 - 974
1 Nov 1997
Milner SA

Accurate measurement of the alignment of the tibia is important both clinically and in research. The conventional method of measuring the angle of malunion after a fracture of the shaft of the tibia is potentially inaccurate because the mechanical axis of the normal bone may not pass down the centre of the medullary canal.

An alternative method is described in which a radiograph of the opposite tibia is used as a template. A sample of 56 sets of standard radiographs of healed fractures of the shaft of the tibia was evaluated. The 95% limits of agreement between this and the conventional method were wide, being −6.2° to +5.5° for coronal angulation and −6.7° to +8.1° for sagittal angulation.

These results suggest that the conventional method is inaccurate. The new method has good inter- and intraobserver reliability.