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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 4 | Pages 534 - 541
1 Apr 2016
Tsang STJ Mills LA Frantzias J Baren JP Keating JF Simpson AHRW


The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the failure of exchange nailing in nonunion of tibial diaphyseal fractures.

Patients and Methods

A cohort of 102 tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 101 patients with a mean age of 36.9 years (15 to 74) were treated between January 1992 and December 2012 by exchange nailing. Of which 33 (32%) were initially open injuries. The median time from primary fixation to exchange nailing was 6.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 4.3 to 9.8 months).

The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union.

Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify risk factors for failure to achieve union.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 865 - 874
1 Jul 2012
Mills LA Simpson AHRW

This review is aimed at clinicians appraising preclinical trauma studies and researchers investigating compromised bone healing or novel treatments for fractures. It categorises the clinical scenarios of poor healing of fractures and attempts to match them with the appropriate animal models in the literature.

We performed an extensive literature search of animal models of long bone fracture repair/nonunion and grouped the resulting studies according to the clinical scenario they were attempting to reflect; we then scrutinised them for their reliability and accuracy in reproducing that clinical scenario.

Models for normal fracture repair (primary and secondary), delayed union, nonunion (atrophic and hypertrophic), segmental defects and fractures at risk of impaired healing were identified. Their accuracy in reflecting the clinical scenario ranged greatly and the reliability of reproducing the scenario ranged from 100% to 40%.

It is vital to know the limitations and success of each model when considering its application.