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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1304 - 1312
1 Dec 2022
Kim HKW Almakias R Millis MB Vakulenko-Lagun B


Perthes’ disease (PD) is a childhood hip disorder that can affect the quality of life in adulthood due to femoral head deformity and osteoarthritis. There is very little data on how PD patients function as adults, especially from the patients’ perspective. The purpose of this study was to collect treatment history, demographic details, the University of California, Los Angeles activity score (UCLA), the 36-Item Short Form survey (SF-36) score, and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome score (HOOS) of adults who had PD using a web-based survey method and to compare their outcomes to the outcomes from an age- and sex-matched normative population.


The English REDCap-based survey was made available on a PD study group website. The survey included childhood and adult PD history, UCLA, SF-36, and HOOS. Of the 1,182 participants who completed the survey, the 921 participants who did not have a total hip arthroplasty are the focus of this study. The mean age at survey was 38 years (SD 12) and the mean duration from age at PD onset to survey participation was 30.8 years (SD 12.6).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1017 - 1024
1 Sep 2022
Morris WZ Justo PGS Williams KA Kim Y Millis MB Novais EN


The aims of this study were to characterize the incidence and risk factors associated with stress fractures following periacetabular osteotomy, and to determine their effect on osteotomy union.


We retrospectively reviewed all periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs) performed for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) at one institution over a six-year period between 2012 and 2017. Perioperative factors were recorded, and included demographic and surgical data. Postoperatively, patients were followed for a minimum of one year with anteroposterior and false profile radiographs of the pelvis to monitor for evidence of stress fracture and union of osteotomies. We characterized the incidence and locations of stress fractures, and used univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors predictive of stress fracture and the association of stress fracture on osteotomy union.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 781 - 785
1 Jul 2022
Ferraro SL Williams DN Millis MB


The aim of this study was to understand the experience of mature patients who undergo a periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), a major hip-preserving surgical procedure that treats symptomatic hip dysplasia by realigning the acetabulum. Our aim was to improve our understanding of how the operation affected the lives of patients and their families, with a long-term goal of improving their experience.


We used a phenomenological approach with in-depth, semi-structured interviews to investigate the experience of seven female patients, aged between 25 and 40 years, who underwent a PAO. A modified homogeneity sampling approach coupled with criterion sampling was used. Inclusion criteria involved having at least one child at home and being in a committed relationship with a spouse or partner.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 5 | Pages 404 - 414
9 May 2022
McGuire MF Vakulenko-Lagun B Millis MB Almakias R Cole EP Kim HKW


Perthes’ disease is an uncommon hip disorder with limited data on the long-term outcomes in adulthood. We partnered with community-based foundations and utilized web-based survey methodology to develop the Adult Perthes Survey, which includes demographics, childhood and adult Perthes’ disease history, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Activity Scale item, Short Form-36, the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and a body pain diagram. Here we investigate the following questions: 1) what is the feasibility of obtaining > 1,000 survey responses from adults who had Perthes’ disease using a web-based platform?; and 2) what are the baseline characteristics and demographic composition of our sample?


The survey link was available publicly for 15 months and advertised among support groups. Of 1,505 participants who attempted the Adult Perthes survey, 1,182 completed it with a median timeframe of 11 minutes (IQR 8.633 to 14.72). Participants who dropped out were similar to those who completed the survey on several fixed variables. Participants represented 45 countries including the USA (n = 570; 48%), UK (n = 295; 25%), Australia (n = 133; 11%), and Canada (n = 46; 4%). Of the 1,182 respondents, 58% were female and the mean age was 39 years (SD 12.6).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4 | Pages 432 - 439
1 Apr 2017
Weinberg DS Williamson DFK Millis MB Liu RW


Recently, there has been considerable interest in quantifying the associations between bony abnormalities around and in the hip joint and osteoarthritis (OA). Our aim was to investigate the relationships between acetabular undercoverage, acetabular overcoverage, and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with OA of the hip, which currently remain controversial.

Materials and Methods

A total of 545 cadaveric skeletons (1090 hips) from the Hamann-Todd osteological collection were obtained. Femoral head volume (FHV), acetabular volume (AV), the FHV/AV ratio, acetabular version, alpha angle and anterior femoral neck offset (AFNO) were measured. A validated grading system was used to quantify OA of the hip as minimal, moderate, or severe. Multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the factors that correlated independently with the FHV, AV, and the FHV/AV ratio.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 29 - 34
1 Jan 2015
Novais EN Potter GD Clohisy JC Millis MB Kim YJ Trousdale RT Carry PM Sierra RJ

Obesity is a risk factor for complications following many orthopaedic procedures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether obesity was an independent risk factor increasing the rate of complications following periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and to determine whether radiographic correction after PAO was affected by obesity.

We retrospectively collected demographic, clinical and radiographic data on 280 patients (231 women; 82.5% and 49 men; 17.5%) who were followed for a mean of 48 months (12 to 60) after PAO. A total of 65 patients (23.2%) were obese (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2). Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that BMI was an independent risk factor associated with the severity of the complications. The average probability of a patient developing a major complication was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.78 to 38.21) for an obese patient compared with 3% (95% CI 1.39 to 6.58) for a non-obese patient The odds of a patient developing a major complication were 11 times higher (95% CI 4.71 to 17.60, p <  0.0001) for an obese compared with a non-obese patient.

Following PAO surgery, there was no difference in radiographic correction between obese and non-obese patients. PAO procedures in obese patients correct the deformity effectively but are associated with an increased rate of complications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:29–34.