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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 124 - 134
1 Feb 2023
Jain S Farook MZ Aslam-Pervez N Amer M Martin DH Unnithan A Middleton R Dunlop DG Scott CEH West R Pandit H


The aim of this study was to compare open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with revision surgery for the surgical management of Unified Classification System (UCS) type B periprosthetic femoral fractures around cemented polished taper-slip femoral components following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).


Data were collected for patients admitted to five UK centres. The primary outcome measure was the two-year reoperation rate. Secondary outcomes were time to surgery, transfusion requirements, critical care requirements, length of stay, two-year local complication rates, six-month systemic complication rates, and mortality rates. Comparisons were made by the form of treatment (ORIF vs revision) and UCS type (B1 vs B2/B3). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed with two-year reoperation for any reason as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 833 - 843
1 Jul 2022
Kayani B Baawa-Ameyaw J Fontalis A Tahmassebi J Wardle N Middleton R Stephen A Hutchinson J Haddad FS


This study reports the ten-year wear rates, incidence of osteolysis, clinical outcomes, and complications of a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing oxidized zirconium (OxZr) versus cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA).


Patients undergoing primary THA were recruited from four institutions and prospectively allocated to the following treatment groups: Group A, CoCr femoral head with XLPE liner; Group B, OxZr femoral head with XLPE liner; and Group C, OxZr femoral head with UHMWPE liner. All study patients and assessors recording outcomes were blinded to the treatment groups. The outcomes of 262 study patients were analyzed at ten years’ follow-up.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 466 - 475
8 Jul 2021
Jain S Lamb J Townsend O Scott CEH Kendrick B Middleton R Jones SA Board T West R Pandit H


This study evaluates risk factors influencing fracture characteristics for postoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) around cemented stems in total hip arthroplasty.


Data were collected for PFF patients admitted to eight UK centres between 25 May 2006 and 1 March 2020. Radiographs were assessed for Unified Classification System (UCS) grade and AO/OTA type. Statistical comparisons investigated relationships by age, gender, and stem fixation philosophy (polished taper-slip (PTS) vs composite beam (CB)). The effect of multiple variables was estimated using multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Surgical treatment (revision vs fixation) was compared by UCS grade and AO/OTA type.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1670 - 1674
5 Dec 2020
Khan T Middleton R Alvand A Manktelow ARJ Scammell BE Ollivere BJ


To determine mortality risk after first revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) for periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF), and to compare this to mortality risk after primary and first revision THA for other common indications.


The study cohort consisted of THAs recorded in the National Joint Registry between 2003 and 2015, linked to national mortality data. First revision THAs for PFF, infection, dislocation, and aseptic loosening were identified. We used a flexible parametric model to estimate the cumulative incidence function of death at 90 days, one year, and five years following first revision THA and primary THA, in the presence of further revision as a competing risk. Analysis covariates were age, sex, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade.

Bone & Joint 360
Vol. 8, Issue 4 | Pages 5 - 13
1 Aug 2019
Middleton R Khan T Alvand A

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1572 - 1578
1 Dec 2018
Middleton R Wilson HA Alvand A Abram SGF Bottomley N Jackson W Price A


Our unit was identified as a negative outlier in the national patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) programme, which has significant funding implications. As a centre that carries out a high volume of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), our objectives were: 1) to determine whether the PROMs programme included primary UKA when calculating the gain in Oxford Knee Score (OKS); and 2) to determine the impact of excluding primary UKA on calculated OKS gains for primary knee arthroplasty.

Materials and Methods

National PROMs data from England (2012 to 2016) were analyzed. Inclusion of UKA cases in the national PROMs programme was determined using clinical codes. Local OKS gain was calculated for UKA and TKA and compared with the published PROMs results for 2012/13.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 7 | Pages 883 - 889
1 Jul 2015
Jassim SS Patel S Wardle N Tahmassebi J Middleton R Shardlow DL Stephen A Hutchinson J Haddad FS

Oxidised zirconium (OxZi) has been developed as an alternative bearing surface for femoral heads in total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study has investigated polyethylene wear, functional outcomes and complications, comparing OxZi and cobalt–chrome (CoCr) as part of a three-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing THA from four institutions were prospectively randomised into three groups. Group A received a CoCr femoral head and highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liner; Group B received an OxZi femoral head and XLPE liner; Group C received an OxZi femoral head and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) liner. At five years, 368 patients had no statistically significant differences in short-form-36 (p = 0.176 mental, p = 0.756 physical), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (p = 0.847), pain scores (p = 0.458) or complications. The mean rate of linear wear was 0.028 mm/year (standard deviation (sd) 0.010) for Group A, 0.023 mm/year (sd 0.010) for Group B, and 0.09 mm/year (sd 0.045) for Group C. Penetration was significantly higher in the UHMWPE liner group compared with both XLPE liner groups (p < 0.001) but no significant difference was noted between CoCr and OxZi when articulating with XLPE (p = 0.153). In this, the largest randomised study of this bearing surface, it appears that using a XLPE acetabular liner is more important in reducing THA component wear than the choice of femoral head bearing, at mid-term follow-up. There is a non-significant trend towards lower wear, coupling OxZi rather than CoCr with XLPE but long-term analysis is required to see if this observation changes with time and becomes significant.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:883–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 3 | Pages 429 - 432
1 May 1987
Middleton R Frost R

This paper describes the design, development and early surgical experience with a stereotactic device to allow closed retrieval and interchange of intramedullary rods in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. This relatively atraumatic procedure may allow more frequent rod interchange than with other techniques, lessening the likelihood of deformity and fracture in the unsupported skeleton when the bone has outgrown the intramedullary rod. The procedure was developed by design studies in vitro followed by intramedullary rodding of tibiae of New Zealand white rabbits. It has been used in children 12 times, in six tibiae and six femora: 11 rods have been successfully retrieved, with rod interchange in eight of these cases.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 66-B, Issue 5 | Pages 652 - 655
1 Nov 1984
Middleton R

Three cases of severe osteogenesis imperfecta are reported. Each was treated by closed intramedullary rodding, combined with osteoclasis to correct deformity. Operation was performed within a few months of birth. Both tibiae and both femora were stabilised in one operation, using x-ray image intensification to monitor placement of the rods. The technique used to insert the rods is described. The procedure appeared to be entirely satisfactory in reducing the incidence of fractures and it allowed the affected infants to be handled much more easily.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 66-B, Issue 4 | Pages 566 - 572
1 Aug 1984
Bellemore M Barrett I Middleton R Scougall J Whiteway D

Cubitus varus is the most common complication of supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children. Although function of the elbow is not greatly impaired, the deformity is unsightly. It usually results from malunion, since growth disturbance of the humerus after this fracture is uncommon. The normal carrying angle can be restored by supracondylar osteotomy. This operation was done in 32 patients over a ten-year period, 16 of them using the technique described by French (1959). The results in 27 patients are reviewed in the light of previous reports. French's method proved safe and satisfactory.