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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 6 | Pages 351 - 353
1 Jun 2021
Baertl S Metsemakers W Morgenstern M Alt V Richards RG Moriarty TF Young K

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1542 - 1550
1 Dec 2018
van den Kieboom J Bosch P J. Plate JD A. IJpma FF Kuehl R McNally MA Metsemakers W M. Govaert GA


To assess the diagnostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP), leucocyte count (LC), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in late fracture-related infection (FRI).

Materials and Methods

PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched focusing on the diagnostic value of CRP, LC, and ESR in late FRI. Sensitivity and specificity combinations were extracted for each marker. Average estimates were obtained using bivariate mixed effects models.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 7 | Pages 447 - 456
1 Jul 2018
Morgenstern M Vallejo A McNally MA Moriarty TF Ferguson JY Nijs S Metsemakers W


As well as debridement and irrigation, soft-tissue coverage, and osseous stabilization, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis is considered the benchmark in the management of open fractures and considerably reduces the risk of subsequent fracture-related infections (FRI). The direct application of antibiotics in the surgical field (local antibiotics) has been used for decades as additional prophylaxis in open fractures, although definitive evidence confirming a beneficial effect is scarce. The purpose of the present study was to review the clinical evidence regarding the effect of prophylactic application of local antibiotics in open limb fractures.


A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. Cohort studies investigating the effect of additional local antibiotic prophylaxis compared with systemic prophylaxis alone in the management of open fractures were included and the data were pooled in a meta-analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 7 | Pages 966 - 972
1 Jul 2018
Morgenstern M Athanasou NA Ferguson JY Metsemakers W Atkins BL McNally MA


This study aimed to investigate the role of quantitative histological analysis in the diagnosis of fracture-related infection (FRI).

Patients and Methods

The clinical features, microbiology culture results, and histological analysis in 156 surgically treated nonunions were used to stratify the likelihood of associated infection. There were 64 confirmed infected nonunions (one or more confirmatory criteria: pus, sinus, and bacterial growth in two or more samples), 66 aseptic nonunions (no confirmatory criteria), and 26 possibly infected nonunions (pathogen identified from a single specimen and no confirmatory criteria). The histological inflammatory response was assessed by average neutrophil polymorph (NPs) counts per high-power field (HPF) and compared with the established diagnosis.