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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 3 | Pages 531 - 539
1 May 1998
Goodman SB Huie P Song Y Schurman D Maloney W Woolson S Sibley R

The tissues surrounding 65 cemented and 36 cementless total joint replacements undergoing revision were characterised for cell types by immunohistochemistry and for cytokine expression by in situ hybridisation.

We identified three distinct groups of revised implants: loose implants with ballooning radiological osteolysis, loose implants without osteolysis, and well-fixed implants. In the cemented series, osteolysis was associated with increased numbers of macrophages (p = 0.0006), T-lymphocyte subgroups (p = 0.03) and IL-1 (p = 0.02) and IL-6 (p = 0.0001) expression, and in the cementless series with increased numbers of T-lymphocyte subgroups (p = 0.005) and increased TNF╬▒ expression (p = 0.04). For cemented implants, the histological, histochemical and cytokine profiles of the interface correlated with the clinical and radiological grade of loosening and osteolysis.

Our findings suggest that there are different biological mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis for cemented and cementless implants. T-lymphocyte modulation of macrophage function may be an important interaction at prosthetic interfaces.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 1 | Pages 67 - 73
1 Jan 1992
Kwong L Jasty M Mulroy R Maloney W Bragdon C Harris W

The radiographic and histological features of radiolucent areas at the cement-bone interface were correlated in 15 specimens retrieved at post-mortem from patients who had undergone cemented total hip arthroplasty, two weeks to 15 years prior to death. All but one of the components were securely fixed, as demonstrated by direct measurements of micromotion. Extensive radiolucencies were present in all but one case. In 11 of the 14 specimens with radiolucencies, histological examination showed that the radiolucent areas represented regions of osteoporosis and bone remodelling. The remodelling changes were characterised by osteoporosis, cancellisation and thinning of the endosteal cortex, and osteopenia of the trabecular bone. In two specimens the appearance of radiolucency was found to be due to fibrous tissue at the cement-bone interface and in one specimen there was a mixed picture of osteolysis and fibrosis. The study demonstrates that radiolucent lines can occur with well-fixed components and that they may commonly represent osteoporosis rather than the presence of a fibrous membrane at the cement-bone interface.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 73-B, Issue 4 | Pages 551 - 558
1 Jul 1991
Jasty M Maloney W Bragdon C O'Connor D Haire T Harris W

We studied 16 femora retrieved at post-mortem from symptomless patients who had a satisfactory cemented total hip arthroplasty from two weeks to 17 years earlier, with the aim of delineating the initial mechanisms involved in loosening. Only one specimen showed radiographic evidence of loosening; the other 15 were stable to mechanical testing at 17.0 Nm of torque. In all 16 specimens, the cement-bone interface was intact with little fibrous tissue formation. By contrast, separation at the cement-prosthesis interface and fractures in the cement mantle were frequent. The most common early feature was debonding of the cement from the metal, seen at the proximal and distal ends of the prosthesis. Specimens which had been in place for longer also showed circumferential fractures in the cement, near the cement-metal interface, and radial fractures extending from this interface into the cement and sometimes to the bony interface. The most extensive cement fractures appeared to have started at or near sharp corners in the metal, or where the cement mantle was thin or incomplete. Fractures were also related to voids in the cement. The time relationship in this series suggested that long-term failure of the fixation of cemented femoral components was primarily mechanical, starting with debonding at the interface between the cement and the prosthesis, and continuing as slowly developing fractures in the cement mantle.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 6 | Pages 966 - 970
1 Nov 1990
Maloney W Jasty M Rosenberg A Harris W

We have reviewed 25 cases of focal femoral osteolysis in radiographically stable, cemented femoral implants. In three hips retrieved at post-mortem from two patients, we have been able to make a detailed biomechanical and histological analysis. The interval between arthroplasty and the appearance of focal osteolysis on clinical radiographs ranged from 40 to 168 months, and in over 70% of the cases this did not appear until after five or more years. Few had significant pain and there was no relation to age, sex or original diagnosis. The most common site for osteolysis were Gruen zones 2 and 3 on the anteroposterior radiograph and zones 5 and 6 on the lateral radiograph. In 15 cases (60%), the area of osteolysis corresponded to either a defect in the cement mantle or an area of very thin cement. The rate of progression of these lesions was variable, but to date only one has progressed to gross loosening of the femoral component. The back-scatter scanning electron microscopic examination of serial sections and biomechanical testing of the post-mortem specimens demonstrated focal cement fracture around implants that were otherwise rigidly fixed. In eight cases from which tissue was available, histology showed a histiocytic reaction with evidence of particulate polymethylmethacrylate. We consider that this local fragmentation was the stimulus for local osteolysis in an otherwise stable cemented femoral component.