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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1541 - 1547
1 Dec 2008
Bush PG Hall AC Macnicol MF

The mammalian growth plate is a complex structure which is essential for the elongation of long bones. However, an understanding of how the growth plate functions at the cellular level is lacking. This review, summarises the factors involved in growth-plate regulation, its failure and the consequence of injury. We also describe some of the cellular mechanisms which underpin the increase in volume of the growth-plate chondrocyte which is the major determinant of the rate and extent of bone lengthening. We show how living in situ chondrocytes can be imaged using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy to provide a quantitative analysis of their volume. This approach should give better understanding of the cellular control of bone growth in both healthy and failed growth plates.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 5 | Pages 648 - 654
1 Jul 2004
Macnicol MF Lo HK Yong KF

Survivorship analysis of 215 medial displacement pelvic osteotomies undertaken for symptomatic, incongruent dysplasia of the hip since 1966 showed that four of every five hips had not required conversion to a total hip arthroplasty.

The radiological characteristics of 86 osteotomies were evaluated at a mean of 18 years (5 to 30) after surgery which was performed at the age of 15.9 ± 9.5 years. Revision was significantly (p < 0.05) more likely in those patients operated on after the age of 25 years. The centre-edge (CE) angle increased from 2.5 ± 13.9° before to 41.8 ± 15.0° immediately after operation. The increase in CE angle was maintained at later review (38.5 ± 16.5°). Even with severe dysplasia with a CE angle less than zero a substantial improvement in the cover of the femoral head was achieved, usually by medial shift of the lower pelvic fragment. However, the head was not invariably medialised by the osteotomy and lateral movement of the ilium was noted when the position of the joint was relatively medial before operation or when the hip was arthritic. In the longer term pelvic remodelling did not reverse the medialisation produced by the osteotomy, and the cover of the femoral head was maintained.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1087 - 1087
1 Sep 2003

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 2 | Pages 167 - 170
1 Mar 2003
Macnicol MF

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 1 | Pages 1 - 2
1 Jan 2001
Macnicol MF

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 5 | Pages 731 - 735
1 Jul 2000
Macnicol MF Nadeem RD

Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) measure the conduction pathways from the periphery to the brain and can demonstrate the site of neurological impairment in a variety of locomotor conditions.

SSEPs were studied in 44 children (64 feet) with surgically corrected club feet. Four children had unreproducible responses, 18 showed abnormal recordings and 22 showed normal responses. In a further 31 feet (21 children) subjected to motor electrophysiological tests, 16 (52%) were abnormal.

Overall, 44 of 95 feet (46%) showed abnormal SSEPs or motor electrophysiological tests. Neurological abnormality was related both to the severity of the deformity and the surgical outcome. It was seen in 38% of feet with grade-2 and in 53% of feet with grade-3 deformity. A fair surgical result was obtained in 36% of feet with a conduction deficit and in only 6% with no abnormality. These results suggest an association between neurological abnormality as demonstrated by SSEPs or motor electrophysiological studies and the severity of deformity in club foot and its response to surgical treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 157 - 159
1 Mar 2000
Macnicol MF Thomas NP

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 172 - 175
1 Mar 2000
Macnicol MF Anagnostopoulos J

Seven children who had partial arrest of the growth plate after neonatal arterial cannulation, developed obvious skeletal changes in adolescence. Cannulation of the femoral artery produced ischaemia which led to four cases of ipsilateral shortening of the lower limb and one of partial arrest of the proximal femoral physis with subsequent coxa valga. The two arrests in the upper limb affected the humerus, ulna and radius, and the radius alone, after cannulation of the brachial and radial arteries, respectively. These late effects of cannulation are not widely appreciated, and may occur as a result of thrombosis rather than extravasation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 2 | Pages 310 - 314
1 Mar 1998
Ismail AM Macnicol MF

We compared the prognostic value of the Catterall grouping, the Salter-Thompson grading, the arthrographic shape of the femoral head, and the Herring lateral pillar grouping during the fragmentation stage of Perthes’ disease in 73 patients with 81 affected hips. Radiographs were available for study from the onset of the disease until skeletal maturity. We used the Stulberg classification to assess outcome.

The Herring grade and arthrographic sphericity proved to be the best predictors of final outcome. Combining these two values further increased the predictive value. All but one patient in Herring group A achieved an excellent outcome. In Herring group B, the age of the child and the sphericity of the femoral head influenced the end result. If the child was less than seven years old at the onset of symptoms the prognosis was invariably good and all spherical hips in group B had a good outcome with Stulberg grades 1 or 2. Moderately and severely deformed hips on arthrography resulted in Stulberg 3 and 4 hips. None of the hips in Herring group C had a normal appearance at maturity and the outcome was not significantly influenced by the age at onset or the arthrographic appearance.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 6 | Pages 891 - 892
1 Nov 1997
Macnicol MF

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 2 | Pages 307 - 309
1 Mar 1997
Macnicol MF Gupta MS

A technique for epiphysiodesis using a cannulated tubesaw has been developed to combine the precision of the original Phemister method with newer percutaneous methods. The approach is unilateral, and requires minimal access. Reinsertion of the removed core of bone reduces haemorrhage from the defect and augments arrest of the growth plate.

In 35 patients treated by this method predicted discrepancies of 2 to 4.5 cm were reliably reduced to 0.7 ± 0.6 cm, with no serious complications. The timing of surgery is critical, and relies upon careful monitoring of the pattern of discrepancy over several years, using clinical and radiographic measurements. Undercorrection of the disparity in three patients was the direct result of late referral.