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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 7 | Pages 573 - 581
1 Jul 2022
Clement ND Afzal I Peacock CJH MacDonald D Macpherson GJ Patton JT Asopa V Sochart DH Kader DF


The aims of this study were to assess mapping models to predict the three-level version of EuroQoL five-dimension utility index (EQ-5D-3L) from the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and validate these before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


A retrospective cohort of 5,857 patients was used to create the prediction models, and a second cohort of 721 patients from a different centre was used to validate the models, all of whom underwent TKA. Patient characteristics, BMI, OKS, and EQ-5D-3L were collected preoperatively and one year postoperatively. Generalized linear regression was used to formulate the prediction models.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 2 | Pages 145 - 151
7 Feb 2022
Robinson PG Khan S MacDonald D Murray IR Macpherson GJ Clement ND


Golf is a popular pursuit among those requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of this study was to determine if participating in golf is associated with greater functional outcomes, satisfaction, or improvement in quality of life (QoL) compared to non-golfers.


All patients undergoing primary THA over a one-year period at a single institution were included with one-year postoperative outcomes. Patients were retrospectively followed up to assess if they had been golfers at the time of their surgery. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the independent association of preoperative golfing status on outcomes.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1254 - 1260
1 Jul 2021
Calabro L Clement ND MacDonald D Patton JT Howie CR Burnett R


The primary aim of this study was to assess whether non-fatal postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) within six months of surgery influences the knee-specific functional outcome (Oxford Knee Score (OKS)) one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondary aims were to assess whether non-fatal postoperative VTE influences generic health and patient satisfaction at this time.


A study of 2,393 TKAs was performed in 2,393 patients. Patient demographics, comorbidities, OKS, EuroQol five-dimension score (EQ-5D), and Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) were collected preoperatively and one year postoperatively. Overall patient satisfaction with their TKA was assessed at one year. Patients with VTE within six months of surgery were identified retrospectively and compared with those without.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 846 - 854
3 May 2021
Clement ND Scott CEH Hamilton DF MacDonald D Howie CR


The aim of this study was to identify the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), minimal important change (MIC), minimal detectable change (MDC), and patient-acceptable symptom state (PASS) threshold in the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) according to patient satisfaction six months following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).


During a one-year period 484 patients underwent a primary TKA and completed preoperative and six-month FJS and OKS. At six months patients were asked, “How satisfied are you with your operated knee?” Their response was recorded as: very satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied. The difference between patients recording neutral (n = 44) and satisfied (n = 153) was used to define the MCID. MIC for a cohort was defined as the change in the FJS for those patients declaring their outcome as satisfied, whereas receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the MIC for an individual and the PASS threshold. Distribution-based methodology was used to calculate the MDC.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 7 | Pages 860 - 866
1 Jul 2019
Nicholson JA Searle HKC MacDonald D McBirnie J


The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age on the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

Patients and Methods

A total of 112 patients were prospectively monitored for two years after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH), the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D). Complications and use of healthcare resources were recorded. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to express the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Propensity score-matching was used to compare those aged below and above 65 years of age. Satisfaction was determined using the Net Promoter Score (NPS). Linear regression was used to identify variables that influenced the outcome at two years postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 1 | Pages 41 - 46
1 Jan 2019
Clement ND Howard TA Immelman RJ MacDonald D Patton JT Lawson GM Burnett R


The primary aim of this study was to compare the knee-specific functional outcome of patellofemoral arthroplasty with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the management of patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

Patients and Methods

A total of 54 consecutive Avon patellofemoral arthroplasties were identified and propensity-score-matched to a group of 54 patients undergoing a TKA with patellar resurfacing for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), and patient satisfaction were collected at a mean follow up of 9.2 years (8 to 15). Survival was defined by revision or intention to revise.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 5 | Pages 351 - 356
1 May 2018
Yeoman TFM Clement ND Macdonald D Moran M


The primary aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the recalled preoperative Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) one year following arthroplasty for a cohort of patients. The secondary aim was to assess the reliability of a patient’s recollection of their own preoperative OHS and OKS one year following surgery.


A total of 335 patients (mean age 72.5; 22 to 92; 53.7% female) undergoing total hip arthroplasty (n = 178) and total knee arthroplasty (n = 157) were prospectively assessed. Patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty completed an OHS or OKS, respectively, preoperatively and were asked to recall their preoperative condition while completing the same score one year after surgery.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1399 - 1408
1 Oct 2017
Scott CEH MacDonald D Moran M White TO Patton JT Keating JF


To evaluate the outcomes of cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) following a fracture of the acetabulum, with evaluation of risk factors and comparison with a patient group with no history of fracture.

Patients and Methods

Between 1992 and 2016, 49 patients (33 male) with mean age of 57 years (25 to 87) underwent cemented THA at a mean of 6.5 years (0.1 to 25) following acetabular fracture. A total of 38 had undergone surgical fixation and 11 had been treated non-operatively; 13 patients died at a mean of 10.2 years after THA (0.6 to 19). Patients were assessed pre-operatively, at one year and at final follow-up (mean 9.1 years, 0.5 to 23) using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS). Implant survivorship was assessed. An age and gender-matched cohort of THAs performed for non-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) or avascular necrosis (AVN) (n = 98) were used to compare complications and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1037 - 1046
1 Aug 2017
Scott CEH Turnbull GS MacDonald D Breusch SJ


Little is known about employment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study aims to identify factors which predict return to work following TKA in patients of working age in the United Kingdom.

Patients & Methods

We prospectively assessed 289 patients (289 TKAs) aged ≤ 65 years who underwent TKA between 2010 and 2013. There were 148 women. The following were recorded pre-operatively: age, gender, body mass index, social deprivation, comorbidities, indication for surgery, work status and nature of employment, activity level as assessed by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score and Oxford Knee Score (OKS). The intention of patients to return to work or to retire was not assessed pre-operatively. At a mean of 3.4 years (2 to 4) post-operatively, the return to work status, OKS, the EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) score, UCLA activity score and Work, Osteoarthritis and joint-Replacement (WORQ) score were obtained. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1625 - 1634
1 Dec 2016
Scott CEH Oliver WM MacDonald D Wade FA Moran M Breusch SJ


Risk of revision following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is higher in patients under 55 years, but little data are reported regarding non-revision outcomes. This study aims to identify predictors of dissatisfaction in these patients.

Patients and Methods

We prospectively assessed 177 TKAs (157 consecutive patients, 99 women, mean age 50 years; 17 to 54) from 2008 to 2013. Age, gender, implant, indication, body mass index (BMI), social deprivation, range of movement, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of osteoarthritis (OA) and prior knee surgery were recorded. Pre- and post-operative Oxford Knee Score (OKS) as well as Short Form-12 physical (PCS) and mental component scores were obtained. Post-operative range of movement, complications and satisfaction were measured at one year.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1376 - 1381
1 Oct 2016
Bucknall V Rutherford D MacDonald D Shalaby H McKinley J Breusch SJ


This is the first prospective study to report the pre- and post-operative patient reported outcomes and satisfaction scores following excision of interdigital Morton’s neuroma.

Patients and Methods

Between May 2006 and April 2013, we prospectively studied 99 consecutive patients (111 feet) who were to undergo excision of a Morton’s neuroma. There were 78 women and 21 men with a mean age at the time of surgery of 56 years (22 to 78). Patients completed the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), Short Form-12 (SF-12) and a supplementary patient satisfaction survey three months pre-operatively and six months post-operatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 7 | Pages 945 - 951
1 Jul 2016
Clement ND MacDonald D Dall GF Ahmed I Duckworth AD Shalaby HS McKinley J


To examine the mid-term outcome and cost utility of the BioPro metallic hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of hallux rigidius.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed 97 consecutive BioPro metallic hemiarthroplasties performed in 80 patients for end-stage hallux rigidus, with a minimum follow-up of five years. There were 19 men and 61 women; their mean age was 55 years (22 to 74). No patient was lost to follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1632 - 1639
1 Dec 2013
Clement ND MacDonald D Simpson AHRW Burnett R

This study assessed the effect of concomitant back pain on the Oxford knee score (OKS), Short-Form (SF)-12 and patient satisfaction after total knee replacement (TKR). It involved a prospectively compiled database of demographics and outcome scores for 2392 patients undergoing primary TKR, of whom 829 patients (35%) reported back pain. Compared with those patients without back pain, those with back pain were more likely to be female (odds ratio (OR) 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 1.8)), have a greater level of comorbidity, a worse pre-operative OKS (2.3 points (95% CI 1.7 to 3.0)) and worse SF-12 physical (2.0 points (95% CI 1.4 to 2.6)) and mental (3.3 points (95% CI 2.3 to 4.3)) components.

One year post-operatively, those with back pain had significantly worse outcome scores than those without with a mean difference in the OKS of 5 points (95% CI 3.8 to 5.4), in the SF-12 physical component of 6 points (95% CI 5.4 to 7.1) and in the mental component of 4 points (95% CI 3.1 to 4.9). Patients with back pain were less likely to be satisfied (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.78).

After adjusting for confounding variables, concomitant back pain was an independent predictor of a worse post-operative OKS, and of dissatisfaction. Clinicians should be aware that patients suffering concomitant back pain pre-operatively are at an increased risk of being dissatisfied post-operatively.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1632–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 360 - 366
1 Mar 2013
Clement ND MacDonald D Burnett R

We assessed the effect of mental disability on the outcome of total knee replacement (TKR) and investigated whether mental health improves post-operatively. Outcome data were prospectively recorded over a three-year period for 962 patients undergoing primary TKR for osteoarthritis. Pre-operative and one year Short-Form (SF)-12 scores and Oxford knee scores (OKS) were obtained. The mental component of the SF-12 was stratified into four groups according to level of mental disability (none ≥ 50, mild 40 to 49, moderate 30 to 39, severe < 30). Patients with any degree of mental disability had a significantly greater subjective physical disability according to the SF-12 (p = 0.06) and OKS (p < 0.001). The improvement in the disease-specific score (OKS) was not affected by a patient’s mental health (p = 0.33). In contrast, patients with mental disability had less of an improvement in their global physical health (SF-12) (p < 0.001). However, patients with any degree of mental disability had a significant improvement in their mental health post-operatively (p < 0.001).

Despite a similar improvement in their disease-specific scores and improvement in their mental health, patients with mental disability were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with their TKR at one year (p = 0.001). Patients with poor mental health do benefit from improvements in their mental health and knee function after TKR, but also have a higher rate of dissatisfaction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:360–6.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 974 - 981
1 Jul 2012
Scott CEH Bugler KE Clement ND MacDonald D Howie CR Biant LC

Patient expectations and their fulfilment are an important factor in determining patient-reported outcome and satisfaction of hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the expectations of patients undergoing THR and TKR, and to identify differences in expectations, predictors of high expectations and the relationship between the fulfilment of expectations and patient-reported outcome measures. During the study period, patients who underwent 346 THRs and 323 TKRs completed an expectation questionnaire, Oxford score and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) score pre-operatively. At one year post-operatively, the Oxford score, SF-12, patient satisfaction and expectation fulfilment were assessed. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed. Improvements in mobility and daytime pain were the most important expectations in both groups. Expectation level did not differ between THR and TKR. Poor Oxford score, younger age and male gender significantly predicted high pre-operative expectations (p < 0.001). The level of pre-operative expectation was not significantly associated with the fulfilment of expectations or outcome. THR better met the expectations identified as important by patients. TKR failed to meet expectations of kneeling, squatting and stair climbing. High fulfilment of expectation in both THR and TKR was significantly predicted by young age, greater improvements in Oxford score and high pre-operative mental health scores. The fulfilment of expectations was highly correlated with satisfaction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1265 - 1270
1 Sep 2011
Clement ND MacDonald D Howie CR Biant LC

Primary arthroplasty may be denied to very elderly patients based upon the perceived outcome and risks associated with surgery. This prospective study compared the outcome, complications, and mortality of total hip (TKR) and total knee replacement (TKR) in a prospectively selected group of patients aged ≥ 80 years with that of a control group aged between 65 and 74 years. There were 171 and 495 THRs and 185 and 492 TKRs performed in the older and control groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean improvement of Oxford hip and knee scores between the groups at 12 months (0.98, (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.66 to 2.95), p = 0.34 and 1.15 (95% CI −0.65 to 2.94), p = 0.16, respectively). The control group had a significantly (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) greater improvement in the physical well being component of their SF-12 score, but the older group was more satisfied with their THR (p = 0.047). The older group had a longer hospital stay for both THR (5.9 versus 9.0 days, p < 0.0001) and TKR (6.2 versus 8.3 days, p < 0.0001). The rates of post-operative complications and mortality were increased in the older group.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 464 - 469
1 Apr 2011
Clement ND Muzammil A MacDonald D Howie CR Biant LC

This prospective study assessed the effect of social deprivation on the Oxford hip score at one year after total hip replacement. An analysis of 1312 patients undergoing 1359 primary total hip replacements for symptomatic osteoarthritis was performed over a 35-month period. Social deprivation was assessed using the Carstairs index. Those patients who were most deprived underwent surgery at an earlier age (p = 0.04), had more comorbidities (p = 0.02), increased severity of symptoms at presentation (p = 0.001), and were not as satisfied with their outcome (p = 0.03) compared with more affluent patients. There was a significant improvement in Oxford scores at 12 months relative to pre-operative scores for all socioeconomic categories (p < 0.001). Social deprivation was a significant independent predictor of mean improvement in Oxford scores at 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables (p = 0.001). Deprivation was also associated with an increased risk of dislocation (odds ratio 5.3, p < 0.001) and mortality at 90 days (odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.02).

Outcome, risk of dislocation and early mortality after a total hip replacement are affected by the socioeconomic status of the patient

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1253 - 1258
1 Sep 2010
Scott CEH Howie CR MacDonald D Biant LC

Up to 20% of patients are not satisfied with the outcome following total knee replacement (TKR). This study investigated the pre- and post-operative predictors of dissatisfaction in a large cohort of patients undergoing TKR. We assessed 1217 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2008 both before operation and six months after, using the Short-form (SF)-12 health questionnaire and the Oxford Knee Score. Detailed information concerning comorbidity was also gathered. Satisfaction was measured at one year when 18.6% (226 of 1217) of patients were unsure or dissatisfied with their replacement and 81.4% (911 of 1217) were satisfied or very satisfied. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of dissatisfaction. Significant (p < 0.001) predictors at one year included the pre-operative SF-12 mental component score, depression and pain in other joints, the six-month SF-12 score and poorer improvement in the pain element of the Oxford Knee Score.

Patient expectations were highly correlated with satisfaction. Satisfaction following TKR is multifactorial. Managing the expectations and mental health of the patients may reduce dissatisfaction. However, the most significant predictor of dissatisfaction is a painful total knee replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1112 - 1117
1 Aug 2010
Clement ND Hallett A MacDonald D Howie C McBirnie J

We compared the outcome of arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff in 32 diabetic patients with the outcome in 32 non-diabetic patients matched for age, gender, size of tear and comorbidities. The Constant-Murley score improved from a mean of 49.2 (24 to 80) pre-operatively to 60.8 (34 to 95) post-operatively (p = 0.0006) in the diabetic patients, and from 46.4 (23 to 90) pre-operatively to 65.2 (25 to 100) post-operatively (p = 0.0003) in the non-diabetic patients at six months. This was significantly greater (p = 0.0002) in non-diabetic patients (18.8) than in diabetics (11.6). There was no significant change in the mean mental component of the Short-Form 12, but the mean physical component increased from 35 to 41 in non-diabetics (p = 0.0001), and from 37 to 39 (p = 0.15) in diabetics. These trends were observed at one year.

Patients with diabetes showed improvement of pain and function following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the short term, but less than their non-diabetic counterparts.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1060 - 1064
1 Aug 2006
Holt G Macdonald D Fraser M Reece AT

Despite the increase in numbers of the extreme elderly, little data is available regarding their outcome after surgery for fracture of the hip. We performed a prospective study of 50 patients aged 95 years and over who underwent this procedure. Outcome measures included morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, residential and walking status. Comparison was made with a control group of 200 consecutive patients aged less than 95 years who had a similar operation. The mortality at 28 and 120 days was higher (p = 0.005, p = 0.001) in the patients over 95 years. However, the one-year cumulative post-operative mortality was neither significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.229) nor from the standardised mortality rate for the age-matched population (p = 0.445). Predictors of mortality included the ASA grade, the number of comorbid medical conditions and active medical problems on admission. Patients over 95 were unlikely to recover their independence and at a mean follow-up of 29.3 months (12.1 to 48) 96% required permanent institutional care.