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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 7 | Pages 589 - 595
1 Jul 2022
Joo PY Chen AF Richards J Law TY Taylor K Marchand K Clark G Collopy D Marchand RC Roche M Mont MA Malkani AL


The aim of this study was to report patient and clinical outcomes following robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty (RA-TKA) at multiple institutions with a minimum two-year follow-up.


This was a multicentre registry study from October 2016 to June 2021 that included 861 primary RA-TKA patients who completed at least one pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) questionnaire, including Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score for Joint Replacement (KOOS JR), and pain out of 100 points. The mean age was 67 years (35 to 86), 452 were male (53%), mean BMI was 31.5 kg/m2 (19 to 58), and 553 (64%) cemented and 308 (36%) cementless implants.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 Supple B | Pages 111 - 115
1 Jul 2021
Vakharia RM Mannino A Salem HS Roche MW Wong CHJ Mont MA


Although there is increasing legalization of the use of cannabis in the USA, few well-powered studies have evaluated the association between cannabis use disorder and outcomes following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether patients who use cannabis and undergo primary THA have higher rates of in-hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, implant-related complications, and costs.


Using an administrative database, patients with cannabis use disorder undergoing primary THA were matched to a control group in a 1:5 ratio by age, sex, and various medical comorbidities. This yielded 23,030 patients (3,842 in the study group matched with 19,188 in the control group). The variables which were studied included LOS, 90-day medical complications, two-year implant-related complications, and 90-day costs of care. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare LOS and costs. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of developing complications.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 59 - 66
1 Jun 2021
Abhari S Hsing TM Malkani MM Smith AF Smith LS Mont MA Malkani AL


Alternative alignment concepts, including kinematic and restricted kinematic, have been introduced to help improve clinical outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results, along with patient satisfaction, following TKA using the concept of restricted kinematic alignment.


A total of 121 consecutive TKAs performed between 11 February 2018 to 11 June 2019 with preoperative varus deformity were reviewed at minimum one-year follow-up. Three knees were excluded due to severe preoperative varus deformity greater than 15°, and a further three due to requiring revision surgery, leaving 109 patients and 115 knees to undergo primary TKA using the concept of restricted kinematic alignment with advanced technology. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the preoperative limb varus deformity: Group A with 1° to 5° varus (43 knees); Group B between 6° and 10° varus (56 knees); and Group C with varus greater than 10° (16 knees). This study group was compared with a matched cohort of 115 TKAs and 115 patients using a neutral mechanical alignment target with manual instruments performed from 24 October 2016 to 14 January 2019.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 113 - 118
1 Jun 2021
Delanois RE Tarazi JM Wilkie WA Remily E Salem HS Mohamed NS Pollack AN Mont MA


Social determinants of health (SDOHs) may contribute to the total cost of care (TCOC) for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between demographic data, health status, and SDOHs on 30-day length of stay (LOS) and TCOC after this procedure.


Patients who underwent TKA between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019 were identified. A total of 234 patients with complete SDOH data were included. Data were drawn from the Chesapeake Regional Information System, the Centers for Disease Control social vulnerability index (SVI), the US Department of Agriculture, and institutional electronic medical records. The SVI identifies areas vulnerable to catastrophic events with four themed scores: socioeconomic status; household composition and disability; minority status and language; and housing and transportation. Food deserts were defined as neighbourhoods located one or ten miles from a grocery store in urban and rural areas, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine associations with LOS and costs after controlling for various demographic parameters.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 7 Supple B | Pages 122 - 128
1 Jul 2020
Sodhi N Acuna A Etcheson J Mohamed N Davila I Ehiorobo JO Jones LC Delanois RE Mont MA


Earlier studies dealing with trends in the management of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) identified an increasing rate of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and a decreasing rate of joint-preserving procedures between 1992 and 2008. In an effort to assess new trends in the management of this condition, this study evaluated the annual trends of joint-preserving versus arthroplasties for patients aged < or > 50 years old, and the incidence of specific operative management techniques.


A total of 219,371 patients with ONFH were identified from a nationwide database between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015. The mean age was 54 years (18 to 90) and 105,298 (48%) were female. The diagnosis was made using International Classification of Disease, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) procedure codes. The percentage of patients managed using each procedure during each year was calculated and compared between years. The trends in the use of the types of procedure were also evaluated.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 | Pages 683 - 692
1 Jun 2020
Arnold N Anis H Barsoum WK Bloomfield MR Brooks PJ Higuera CA Kamath AF Klika A Krebs VE Mesko NW Molloy RM Mont MA Murray TG Patel PD Strnad G Stearns KL Warren J Zajichek A Piuzzi NS


Thresholds for operative eligibility based on body mass index (BMI) alone may restrict patient access to the benefits of arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and improvements in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and to determine how many patients would have been denied improvements in PROMs if BMI cut-offs were to be implemented.


A prospective cohort of 3,449 primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed between 2015 and 2018 were analyzed. The following one-year PROMs were evaluated: hip injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) pain, HOOS Physical Function Shortform (PS), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity, Veterans Rand-12 Physical Component Score (VR-12 PCS), and VR-12 Mental Component Score (VR-12 MCS). Positive predictive values for failure to improve and the number of patients denied surgery in order to avoid a failed improvement were calculated for each PROM at different BMI cut-offs.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 10 | Pages 495 - 501
1 Oct 2019
Hampp EL Sodhi N Scholl L Deren ME Yenna Z Westrich G Mont MA


The use of the haptically bounded saw blades in robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) can potentially help to limit surrounding soft-tissue injuries. However, there are limited data characterizing these injuries for cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA with the use of this technique. The objective of this cadaver study was to compare the extent of soft-tissue damage sustained through a robotic-assisted, haptically guided TKA (RATKA) versus a manual TKA (MTKA) approach.


A total of 12 fresh-frozen pelvis-to-toe cadaver specimens were included. Four surgeons each prepared three RATKA and three MTKA specimens for cruciate-retaining TKAs. A RATKA was performed on one knee and a MTKA on the other. Postoperatively, two additional surgeons assessed and graded damage to 14 key anatomical structures in a blinded manner. Kruskal–Wallis hypothesis tests were performed to assess statistical differences in soft-tissue damage between RATKA and MTKA cases.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 7 | Pages 875 - 881
1 Jul 2018
Newman JM Khlopas A Sodhi N Curtis GL Sultan AA George J Higuera CA Mont MA


This study compared multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with a matched cohort. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) implant survivorship; 2) functional outcomes (modified Harris Hip Scores (mHHS), Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Joint Replacement (HOOS JR), and modified Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (mMSIS) scores (with the MS cohort also evaluated based on the disease phenotype)); 3) physical therapy duration and return to function; 4) radiographic outcomes; and 5) complications.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed our institution’s database to identify MS patients who underwent THA between January 2008 and June 2016. A total of 34 MS patients (41 hips) were matched in a 1:2 ratio to a cohort of THA patients who did not have MS, based on age, body mass index (BMI), and Charlson/Deyo score. Patient records were reviewed for complications, and their functional outcomes and radiographs were reviewed at their most recent follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1267 - 1279
1 Oct 2017
Chughtai M Piuzzi NS Khlopas A Jones LC Goodman SB Mont MA

Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a potentially devastating condition, the prevalence of which is increasing. Many joint-preserving forms of treatment, both medical and surgical, have been developed in an attempt to slow or reverse its progression, as it usually affects young patients.

However, it is important to evaluate the best evidence that is available for the many forms of treatment considering the variation in the demographics of the patients, the methodology and the outcomes in the studies that have been published, so that it can be used effectively.

The purpose of this review, therefore, was to provide an up-to-date, evidence-based guide to the management, both non-operative and operative, of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1267–79.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1479 - 1488
1 Nov 2016
Kalson NS Borthwick LA Mann DA Deehan DJ Lewis P Mann C Mont MA Morgan-Jones R Oussedik S Williams FMK Toms A Argenson JN Bellemans J Bhave A Furnes O Gollwitzer H Haddad FS Hofmann S Krenn V


The aim of this consensus was to develop a definition of post-operative fibrosis of the knee.

Patients and Methods

An international panel of experts took part in a formal consensus process composed of a discussion phase and three Delphi rounds.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 6 - 13
1 Jan 2016
Cheung AC Banerjee S Cherian JJ Wong F Butany J Gilbert C Overgaard C Syed K Zywiel MG Jacobs JJ Mont MA

Recently, the use of metal-on-metal articulations in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has led to an increase in adverse events owing to local soft-tissue reactions from metal ions and wear debris. While the majority of these implants perform well, it has been increasingly recognised that a small proportion of patients may develop complications secondary to systemic cobalt toxicity when these implants fail. However, distinguishing true toxicity from benign elevations in cobalt ion levels can be challenging.

The purpose of this two part series is to review the use of cobalt alloys in THA and to highlight the following related topics of interest: mechanisms of cobalt ion release and their measurement, definitions of pathological cobalt ion levels, and the pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment of cobalt toxicity. Historically, these metal-on-metal arthroplasties are composed of a chromium-cobalt articulation.

The release of cobalt is due to the mechanical and oxidative stresses placed on the prosthetic joint. It exerts its pathological effects through direct cellular toxicity.

This manuscript will highlight the pathophysiology of cobalt toxicity in patients with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

Take home message: Patients with new or evolving hip symptoms with a prior history of THA warrant orthopaedic surgical evaluation. Increased awareness of the range of systemic symptoms associated with cobalt toxicity, coupled with prompt orthopaedic intervention, may forestall the development of further complications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:6–13.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1 | Pages 14 - 20
1 Jan 2016
Zywiel MG Cherian JJ Banerjee S Cheung AC Wong F Butany J Gilbert C Overgaard C Syed K Jacobs JJ Mont MA

As adverse events related to metal on metal hip arthroplasty have been better understood, there has been increased interest in toxicity related to the high circulating levels of cobalt ions. However, distinguishing true toxicity from benign elevations in cobalt levels can be challenging. The purpose of this review is to examine the use of cobalt alloys in total hip arthroplasty, to review the methods of measuring circulating cobalt levels, to define a level of cobalt which is considered pathological and to review the pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment of cobalt toxicity. To the best of our knowledge, there are 18 published cases where cobalt metal ion toxicity has been attributed to the use of cobalt-chromium alloys in hip arthroplasty. Of these cases, the great majority reported systemic toxic reactions at serum cobalt levels more than 100 μg/L. This review highlights some of the clinical features of cobalt toxicity, with the goal that early awareness may decrease the risk factors for the development of cobalt toxicity and/or reduce its severity.

Take home message: Severe adverse events can arise from the release of cobalt from metal-on-metal arthroplasties, and as such, orthopaedic surgeons should not only be aware of the presenting problems, but also have the knowledge to treat appropriately.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:14–20.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1_Supple_A | Pages 89 - 94
1 Jan 2016
Cherian JJ Jauregui JJ Leichliter AK Elmallah RK Bhave A Mont MA

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various non-operative modalities of treatment (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES); insoles and bracing) on the pain of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.

We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify the therapeutic options which are commonly adopted for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.

The outcome measurement tools used in the different studies were the visual analogue scale and The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index pain index: all pain scores were converted to a 100-point scale.

A total of 30 studies met our inclusion criteria: 13 on insoles, seven on TENS, six on NMES, and four on bracing. The standardised mean difference (SMD) in pain after treatment with TENS was 1.796, which represented a significant reduction in pain. The significant overall effect estimate for NMES on pain was similar to that of TENS, with a SMD of 1.924. The overall effect estimate of insoles on pain was a SMD of 0.992. The overall effect of bracing showed a significant reduction in pain of 1.34.

Overall, all four non-operative modalities of treatment were found to have a significant effect on the reduction of pain in OA of the knee.

This study shows that non-operative physical modalities of treatment are of benefit when treating OA of the knee. However, much of the literature reviewed evaluates studies with follow-up of less than six months: future work should aim to evaluate patients with longer follow-up.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):89–94.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 7 | Pages 924 - 932
1 Jul 2015
Lee MC Ha C Elmallah RK Cherian JJ Cho JJ Kim TW Bin S Mont MA

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of injecting genetically engineered chondrocytes expressing transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) into the knees of patients with osteoarthritis. We assessed the resultant function, pain and quality of life.

A total of 54 patients (20 men, 34 women) who had a mean age of 58 years (50 to 66) were blinded and randomised (1:1) to receive a single injection of the active treatment or a placebo. We assessed post-treatment function, pain severity, physical function, quality of life and the incidence of treatment-associated adverse events. Patients were followed at four, 12 and 24 weeks after injection.

At final follow-up the treatment group had a significantly greater improvement in the mean International Knee Documentation Committee score than the placebo group (16 points; -18 to 49, vs 8 points; -4 to 37, respectively; p = 0.03). The treatment group also had a significantly improved mean visual analogue score at final follow-up (-25; -85 to 34, vs -11 points; -51 to 25, respectively; p = 0.032). Both cohorts showed an improvement in Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores, but these differences were not statistically significant. One patient had an anaphylactic reaction to the preservation medium, but recovered within 24 hours. All other adverse events were localised and resolved without further action.

This technique may result in improved clinical outcomes, with the aim of slowing the degenerative process, leading to improvements in pain and function. However, imaging and direct observational studies are needed to verify cartilage regeneration. Nevertheless, this study provided a sufficient basis to proceed to further clinical testing.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:924–32.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 46 - 50
1 Nov 2013
Issa K Pivec R Kapadia BH Banerjee S Mont MA

Symptomatic hip osteonecrosis is a disabling condition with a poorly understood aetiology and pathogenesis. Numerous treatment options for hip osteonecrosis are described, which include non-operative management and joint preserving procedures, as well as total hip replacement (THR). Non-operative or joint preserving treatment may improve outcomes when an early diagnosis is made before the lesion has become too large or there is radiographic evidence of femoral head collapse. The presence of a crescent sign, femoral head flattening, and acetabular involvement indicate a more advanced-stage disease in which joint preserving options are less effective than THR. Since many patients present after disease progression, primary THR is often the only reliable treatment option available. Prior to the 1990s, outcomes of THR for osteonecrosis were poor. However, according to recent reports and systemic reviews, it is encouraging that with the introduction of newer ceramic and/or highly cross-linked polyethylene bearings as well as highly-porous fixation interfaces, THR appears to be a reliable option in the management of end-stage arthritis following hip osteonecrosis in this historically difficult to treat patient population.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B, Supple A:46–50.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 41 - 45
1 Nov 2013
Zywiel MG Mont MA Callaghan JJ Clohisy JC Kosashvili Y Backstein D Gross AE

Down’s syndrome is associated with a number of musculoskeletal abnormalities, some of which predispose patients to early symptomatic arthritis of the hip. The purpose of the present study was to review the general and hip-specific factors potentially compromising total hip replacement (THR) in patients with Down’s syndrome, as well as to summarise both the surgical techniques that may anticipate the potential adverse impact of these factors and the clinical results reported to date. A search of the literature was performed, and the findings further informed by the authors’ clinical experience, as well as that of the hip replacement in Down Syndrome study group. The general factors identified include a high incidence of ligamentous laxity, as well as associated muscle hypotonia and gait abnormalities. Hip-specific factors include: a high incidence of hip dysplasia, as well as a number of other acetabular, femoral and combined femoroacetabular anatomical variations. Four studies encompassing 42 hips, which reported the clinical outcomes of THR in patients with Down’s syndrome, were identified. All patients were successfully treated with standard acetabular and femoral components. The use of supplementary acetabular screw fixation to enhance component stability was frequently reported. The use of constrained liners to treat intra-operative instability occurred in eight hips. Survival rates of between 81% and 100% at a mean follow-up of 105 months (6 to 292) are encouraging. Overall, while THR in patients with Down’s syndrome does present some unique challenges, the overall clinical results are good, providing these patients with reliable pain relief and good function.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B, Supple A:41–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 14 - 18
1 Nov 2012
Lombardi, Jr AV Barrack RL Berend KR Cuckler JM Jacobs JJ Mont MA Schmalzried TP

Since 1996 more than one million metal-on-metal articulations have been implanted worldwide. Adverse reactions to metal debris are escalating. Here we present an algorithmic approach to patient management. The general approach to all arthroplasty patients returning for follow-up begins with a detailed history, querying for pain, discomfort or compromise of function. Symptomatic patients should be evaluated for intra-articular and extra-articular causes of pain. In large head MoM arthroplasty, aseptic loosening may be the source of pain and is frequently difficult to diagnose. Sepsis should be ruled out as a source of pain. Plain radiographs are evaluated to rule out loosening and osteolysis, and assess component position. Laboratory evaluation commences with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, which may be elevated. Serum metal ions should be assessed by an approved facility. Aspiration, with manual cell count and culture/sensitivity should be performed, with cloudy to creamy fluid with predominance of monocytes often indicative of failure. Imaging should include ultrasound or metal artifact reduction sequence MRI, specifically evaluating for fluid collections and/or masses about the hip. If adverse reaction to metal debris is suspected then revision to metal or ceramic-on-polyethylene is indicated and can be successful. Delay may be associated with extensive soft-tissue damage and hence poor clinical outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1279 - 1285
1 Oct 2006
Parvizi J Campfield A Clohisy JC Rothman RH Mont MA

Arthritis of the hip in the young adult can be a disabling condition. Recent years have witnessed extensive research related to the management of this condition. This article reviews the current status with regard to aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of arthritis of the hip in the young adult.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 6 | Pages 740 - 746
1 Jun 2006
Marulanda G Seyler TM Sheikh NH Mont MA

Osteonecrosis of the knee comprises two separate disorders, primary spontaneous osteonecrosis which is often a self-limiting condition and secondary osteonecrosis which is associated with risk factors and a poor prognosis. In a series of 61 knees (38 patients) we analysed secondary osteonecrosis of the knee treated by a new technique using multiple small percutaneous 3 mm drillings.

Total knee replacement was avoided in 59 knees (97%) at a mean follow-up of 3 years (2 to 4). Of the 61 knees, 56 (92%) had a successful clinical outcome, defined as a Knee Society score greater than 80 points. The procedure was successful in all 24 knees with small lesions compared with 32 of 37 knees (86%) with large lesions. All the procedures were performed as day cases and there were no complications. This technique appears to have a low morbidity, relieves symptoms and delays more invasive surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 2 | Pages 307 - 307
1 Mar 2000