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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 5 | Pages 603 - 609
1 May 2018
Schnetzke M Rick S Raiss P Walch G Loew M


The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of using an anatomical short-stem shoulder prosthesis to treat primary osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint.

Patients and Methods

A total of 66 patients (67 shoulders) with a mean age of 76 years (63 to 92) were available for clinical and radiological follow-up at two different timepoints (T1, mean 2.6 years, sd 0.5; T2, mean 5.3 years, sd 0.7). Postoperative radiographs were analyzed for stem angle, cortical contact, and filling ratio of the stem. Follow-up radiographs were analyzed for timing and location of bone adaptation (cortical bone narrowing, osteopenia, spot welds, and condensation lines). The bone adaptation was classified as low (between zero and three features of bone remodelling around the humeral stem) or high (four or more features).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 7 | Pages 939 - 943
1 Jul 2017
Sowa B Bochenek M Bülhoff M Zeifang F Loew M Bruckner T Raiss P


Promising medium-term results from total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) have been reported for the treatment of primary osteoarthritis in young and middle-aged patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and radiological outcome of TSA in the middle-aged patient.

Patients and Methods

The data of all patients from the previous medium-term study were available. At a mean follow-up of 13 years (8 to 17), we reviewed 21 patients (12 men, nine women, 21 shoulders) with a mean age of 55 years (37 to 60). The Constant-Murley score (CS) with its subgroups and subjective satisfaction were measured. Radiological signs of implant loosening were analysed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 210 - 216
1 Feb 2011
Young A Walch G Boileau P Favard L Gohlke F Loew M Molé D

We report the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of the Aequalis total shoulder replacement with a cemented all-polyethylene flat-back keeled glenoid component implanted for primary osteoarthritis between 1991 and 2003 in nine European centres. A total of 226 shoulders in 210 patients were retrospectively reviewed at a mean of 122.7 months (61 to 219) or at revision. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Constant score, patient satisfaction score and range of movement. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed with glenoid revision for loosening and radiological glenoid loosening (sd) as endpoints. The Constant score was found to improve from a mean of 26.8 (sd 10.3) pre-operatively to 57.6 (sd 20.0) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Active forward flexion improved from a mean of 85.3° (sd 27.4) pre-operatively to 125° (sd 37.3) postoperatively (p < 0.001). External rotation improved from a mean of 7° (sd 6.5) pre-operatively to 30.3° (sd 21.8°) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Survivorship with revision of the glenoid component as the endpoint was 99.1% at five years, 94.5% at ten years and 79.4% at 15 years. Survivorship with radiological loosening as the endpoint was 99.1% at five years, 80.3% at ten years and 33.6% at 15 years.

Younger patient age and the curettage technique for glenoid preparation correlated with loosening. The rate of glenoid revision and radiological loosening increased with duration of follow-up, but not until a follow-up of five years. Therefore, we recommend that future studies reporting radiological outcomes of new glenoid designs should report follow-up of at least five to ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1403 - 1409
1 Oct 2010
Pape G Zeifang F Bruckner T Raiss P Rickert M Loew M

Fractures of the proximal humerus can lead to malalignment of the humeral head, necrosis and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. In such cases surface replacement might be a promising option.

A total of 28 shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis subsequent to a fracture underwent surface replacement arthroplasty of the humeral head in patients with a mean age of 60 years (35 to 83). On the basis of the inclination of the impacted head, post-traumatic arthritis was divided into three types: type 1, an impacted fracture of the head in an anatomical position (seven cases); type 2, a valgus impacted fracture (13 cases); type 3, a varus impacted fracture (eight cases). The outcome was measured by means of the Constant score.

According to the Boileau classification of the sequelae of fractures of the proximal humerus, all 28 patients had a final result of intra-capsular category 1. The mean Constant score for the 28 shoulders increased from 23.2 points (2 to 45) pre-operatively to 55.1 points (20 to 89) at a mean of 31 months (24 to 66) post-operatively. Valgus impacted fractures had significantly better results (p < 0.039).

Surface replacement arthroplasty can provide good results for patients with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Their use avoids post-operative complications of the humeral shaft, such as peri-prosthetic fractures. Further surgery can be undertaken more easily as the bone stock is preserved.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 3 | Pages 387 - 392
1 Mar 2010
Kasten P Pape G Raiss P Bruckner T Rickert M Zeifang F Loew M

We have investigated the mid-term outcome of total shoulder replacement using a keeled cemented glenoid component and a modern cementing technique with regard to the causes of failure and loosening of the components.

Between 1997 and 2003 we performed 96 total shoulder replacements on 88 patients, 24 men and 64 women with a mean age of 69.7 years (31 to 82). The minimum follow-up was five years and at the time of review 87 shoulders (77 patients) were examined at a mean follow-up of 89.1 months (60 to 127). Cumulative survival curves were generated with re-operations (accomplished and planned), survivorship of the proshesis, loosening of the glenoid (defined as tilt > 5° or subsidence > 5 mm), the presence of radiolucent lines and a Constant score of < 30 as the endpoints.

There were two re-operations not involving revision of the implants and the survival rate of the prosthesis was 100.0% for the follow-up period, with an absolute Constant score of > 30 as the endpoint the survival rate was 98%. Radiological glenoid loosening was 9% after five years, and 33% after nine years. There was an incidence of 8% of radiolucent lines in more than three of six zones in the immediate post-operative period, of 37.0% after the first year which increased to 87.0% after nine years. There was no correlation between the score of Boileau and the total Constant score at the latest follow-up, but there was correlation between glenoid loosening and pain (p = 0.001).

We found that total shoulder replacement had an excellent mid-term survivorship and clinical outcome. The surgical and cementing techniques were related to the decrease in radiolucent lines around the glenoid compared with earlier studies. One concern, however, was the fact that radiolucent lines increased over time and there was a rate of glenoid loosening of 9% after five years and 33% after nine years. This suggests that the design of the glenoid component, and the implantation and cementing techniques may need further improvement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 6 | Pages 764 - 769
1 Jun 2008
Raiss P Aldinger PR Kasten P Rickert M Loew M

Our aim in this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of total shoulder replacement in the treatment of young and middle-aged active patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. We reviewed 21 patients (21 shoulders) with a mean age of 55 years (37 to 60). The mean follow-up was seven years (5 to 9). The same anatomical, third-generation, cemented implant had been used in all patients. All the patients were evaluated radiologically and clinically using the Constant and Murley score.

No patients required revision. In one a tear of the supraspinatus tendon occurred. Overall, 20 patients (95%) were either very satisfied (n = 18) or satisfied (n = 2) with the outcome. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were found for all categories of the Constant and Murley score pre- and post-operatively. The mean Constant and Murley score increased from 24.1 points (10 to 45) to 64.5 points (39 to 93), and the relative score from 30.4% (11% to 50%) to 83% (54% to 116%). No clinical or radiological signs of loosening of the implant were seen.

For young and middle-aged patients with osteoarthritis, third-generation total shoulder replacement is a viable method of treatment with a low rate of complications and excellent results in the mid-term.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 3 | Pages 345 - 350
1 Mar 2006
Loew M Heitkemper S Parsch D Schneider S Rickert M

We reviewed 39 patients with displaced three- and four-part fractures of the humerus. In 21 patients (group A) we had used an anatomical prosthesis for the humeral head and in 18 (group B) an implant designed for fractures.

When followed up at a mean of 29.3 months after surgery the overall Constant score was 51.9 points; in group A it was 51.5 and in group B 52.4 points. The subjective satisfaction of the patients was assessed using a numerical rating scale and was similar in both groups. In group A complete healing of the tuberosities was found in 29% and 50% in group B. Partial integration was seen in 29% of group A and in only one patient in group B, while resorption was noted in 43% of group A and 44% of group B. The functional outcome was significantly better in patients with complete or partial healing of the tuberosities (p = 0.022). The specific trauma prosthesis did not lead to better healing of the tuberosities. The difference in clinical outcome obtained by the two designs did not reach statistical significance.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 5 | Pages 863 - 867
1 Sep 1999
Loew M Daecke W Kusnierczak D Rahmanzadeh M Ewerbeck V

We report a prospective study of the effects of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in 195 patients with chronic calcifying tendinitis. In part A 80 patients with chronic symptoms were randomly assigned to a control and three subgroups which had different treatment by low-energy and high-energy shock waves. In part B 115 patients had either one or two high-energy sessions. We recorded subjective, functional and radiological findings at six months after treatment.

The results showed energy-dependent success, with relief of pain ranging from 5% in our control group up to 58% after two high-energy sessions. The Constant scores and the radiological disintegration of calcification were also dose-dependent.

Shockwave therapy should be considered for chronic pain due to calcific tendinitis which is resistant to conservative treatment.