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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 5 | Pages 482 - 491
1 May 2024
Davies A Sabharwal S Liddle AD Zamora Talaya MB Rangan A Reilly P


Metal and ceramic humeral head bearing surfaces are available choices in anatomical shoulder arthroplasties. Wear studies have shown superior performance of ceramic heads, however comparison of clinical outcomes according to bearing surface in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemiarthroplasty (HA) is limited. This study aimed to compare the rates of revision and reoperation following metal and ceramic humeral head TSA and HA using data from the National Joint Registry (NJR), which collects data from England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and the States of Guernsey.


NJR shoulder arthroplasty records were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and the National Mortality Register. TSA and HA performed for osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with an intact rotator cuff were included. Metal and ceramic humeral head prostheses were matched within separate TSA and HA groups using propensity scores based on 12 and 11 characteristics, respectively. The primary outcome was time to first revision and the secondary outcome was non-revision reoperation.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 12 | Pages 948 - 956
15 Dec 2023
Vella-Baldacchino M Webb J Selvarajah B Chatha S Davies A Cobb JP Liddle AD


With up to 40% of patients having patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ OA), the two arthroplasty options are to replace solely the patellofemoral joint via patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA), or the entire knee via total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to assess postoperative success of second-generation PFAs compared to TKAs for patients treated for PFJ OA using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and domains deemed important by patients following a patient and public involvement meeting.


MEDLINE, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL, and EBSCO were searched from inception to January 2022. Any study addressing surgical treatment of primary patellofemoral joint OA using second generation PFA and TKA in patients aged above 18 years with follow-up data of 30 days were included. Studies relating to OA secondary to trauma were excluded. ROB-2 and ROBINS-I bias tools were used.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 8 | Pages 857 - 863
1 Aug 2023
Morgan C Li L Kasetti PR Varma R Liddle AD


As an increasing number of female surgeons are choosing orthopaedics, it is important to recognize the impact of pregnancy within this cohort. The aim of this review was to examine common themes and data surrounding pregnancy, parenthood, and fertility within orthopaedics.


A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, Emcare, Embase, PsycINFO, OrthoSearch, and the Cochrane Library in November 2022. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis were adhered to. Original research papers that focused on pregnancy and/or parenthood within orthopaedic surgery were included for review.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 3 | Pages 129 - 137
1 Mar 2023
Patel A Edwards TC Jones G Liddle AD Cobb J Garner A


The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score examines patient performance in relation to energy expenditure before and after knee arthroplasty. This study assesses its use in a knee arthroplasty population in comparison with the widely used Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and EuroQol five-dimension index (EQ-5D), which are reported to be limited by ceiling effects.


A total of 116 patients with OKS, EQ-5D, and MET scores before, and at least six months following, unilateral primary knee arthroplasty were identified from a database. Procedures were performed by a single surgeon between 2014 and 2019 consecutively. Scores were analyzed for normality, skewness, kurtosis, and the presence of ceiling/floor effects. Concurrent validity between the MET score, OKS, and EQ-5D was assessed using Spearman’s rank.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 5 | Pages 317 - 326
23 May 2022
Edwards TC Guest B Garner A Logishetty K Liddle AD Cobb JP


This study investigates the use of the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) score in a young hip arthroplasty population, and its ability to capture additional benefit beyond the ceiling effect of conventional patient-reported outcome measures.


From our electronic database of 751 hip arthroplasty procedures, 221 patients were included. Patients were excluded if they had revision surgery, an alternative hip procedure, or incomplete data either preoperatively or at one-year follow-up. Included patients had a mean age of 59.4 years (SD 11.3) and 54.3% were male, incorporating 117 primary total hip and 104 hip resurfacing arthroplasty operations. Oxford Hip Score (OHS), EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), and the MET were recorded preoperatively and at one-year follow-up. The distribution was examined reporting the presence of ceiling and floor effects. Validity was assessed correlating the MET with the other scores using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and determining responsiveness. A subgroup of 93 patients scoring 48/48 on the OHS were analyzed by age, sex, BMI, and preoperative MET using the other metrics to determine if differences could be established despite scoring identically on the OHS.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 2 | Pages 91 - 101
1 Feb 2022
Munford MJ Stoddart JC Liddle AD Cobb JP Jeffers JRT


Unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (UKA and TKA) are successful treatments for osteoarthritis, but the solid metal implants disrupt the natural distribution of stress and strain which can lead to bone loss over time. This generates problems if the implant needs to be revised. This study investigates whether titanium lattice UKA and TKA implants can maintain natural load transfer in the proximal tibia.


In a cadaveric model, UKA and TKA procedures were performed on eight fresh-frozen knee specimens, using conventional (solid) and titanium lattice tibial implants. Stress at the bone-implant interfaces were measured and compared to the native knee.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 8 | Pages 638 - 645
1 Aug 2021
Garner AJ Edwards TC Liddle AD Jones GG Cobb JP


Joint registries classify all further arthroplasty procedures to a knee with an existing partial arthroplasty as revision surgery, regardless of the actual procedure performed. Relatively minor procedures, including bearing exchanges, are classified in the same way as major operations requiring augments and stems. A new classification system is proposed to acknowledge and describe the detail of these procedures, which has implications for risk, recovery, and health economics.


Classification categories were proposed by a surgical consensus group, then ranked by patients, according to perceived invasiveness and implications for recovery. In round one, 26 revision cases were classified by the consensus group. Results were tested for inter-rater reliability. In round two, four additional cases were added for clarity. Round three repeated the survey one month later, subject to inter- and intrarater reliability testing. In round four, five additional expert partial knee arthroplasty surgeons were asked to classify the 30 cases according to the proposed revision partial knee classification (RPKC) system.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 140
24 Feb 2021
Logishetty K Edwards TC Subbiah Ponniah H Ahmed M Liddle AD Cobb J Clark C


Restarting planned surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic is a clinical and societal priority, but it is unknown whether it can be done safely and include high-risk or complex cases. We developed a Surgical Prioritization and Allocation Guide (SPAG). Here, we validate its effectiveness and safety in COVID-free sites.


A multidisciplinary surgical prioritization committee developed the SPAG, incorporating procedural urgency, shared decision-making, patient safety, and biopsychosocial factors; and applied it to 1,142 adult patients awaiting orthopaedic surgery. Patients were stratified into four priority groups and underwent surgery at three COVID-free sites, including one with access to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) and specialist resources. Safety was assessed by the number of patients requiring inpatient postoperative HDU/ICU admission, contracting COVID-19 within 14 days postoperatively, and mortality within 30 days postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 2 | Pages 134 - 142
1 Feb 2018
Hexter AT Hislop SM Blunn GW Liddle AD


Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Different bearing surface materials have different surface properties and it has been suggested that the choice of bearing surface may influence the risk of PJI after THA. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the rate of PJI between metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings.

Patients and Methods

Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched for comparative randomized and observational studies that reported the incidence of PJI for different bearing surfaces. Two investigators independently reviewed studies for eligibility, evaluated risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel–Haenzel method and random-effects model in accordance with methods of the Cochrane group.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 1 | Pages 12 - 15
1 Jan 2017
Murray DW Liddle AD Judge A Pandit H

We recently published a paper comparing the incidence of adverse outcomes after unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (UKA and TKA). The conclusion of this study, which was in favour of UKA, was dismissed as “biased” in a review in Bone & Joint 360. Although this study is one of the least biased comparisons of UKA and TKA, this episode highlights the biases that exist both for and against UKA. In this review, we explore the different types of bias, particularly selection, reporting and measurement. We conclude that comparisons between UKA and TKA are open to bias. These biases can be so marked, particularly in comparisons based just on national registry data, that the conclusions can be misleading. For a fair comparison, data from randomised studies or well-matched, prospective observational cohort studies, which include registry data, are required, and multiple outcome measures should be used. The data of this type that already exist suggest that if UKA is used appropriately, compared with TKA, its advantages outweigh its disadvantages.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:12–15.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1506 - 1511
1 Nov 2015
Liddle AD Pandit H Judge A Murray DW

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has advantages over total knee arthroplasty but national joint registries report a significantly higher revision rate for UKA. As a result, most surgeons are highly selective, offering UKA only to a small proportion (up to 5%) of patients requiring arthroplasty of the knee, and consequently performing few each year. However, surgeons with large UKA practices have the lowest rates of revision. The overall size of the practice is often beyond the surgeon’s control, therefore case volume may only be increased by broadening the indications for surgery, and offering UKA to a greater proportion of patients requiring arthroplasty of the knee.

The aim of this study was to determine the optimal UKA usage (defined as the percentage of knee arthroplasty practice comprised by UKA) to minimise the rate of revision in a sample of 41 986 records from the for National Joint Registry for England and Wales (NJR).

UKA usage has a complex, non-linear relationship with the rate of revision. Acceptable results are achieved with the use of 20% or more. Optimal results are achieved with usage between 40% and 60%. Surgeons with the lowest usage (up to 5%) have the highest rates of revision. With optimal usage, using the most commonly used implant, five-year survival is 96% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.9 to 96.0), compared with 90% (95% CI 88.4 to 91.6) with low usage (5%) previously considered ideal.

The rate of revision of UKA is highest with low usage, implying the use of narrow, and perhaps inappropriate, indications. The widespread use of broad indications, using appropriate implants, would give patients the advantages of UKA, without the high rate of revision.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1506–11.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10_Supple_A | Pages 3 - 8
1 Oct 2015
Murray DW Liddle AD Dodd CAF Pandit H

There is a large amount of evidence available about the relative merits of unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty (UKA and TKA). Based on the same evidence, different people draw different conclusions and as a result, there is great variability in the usage of UKA.

The revision rate of UKA is much higher than TKA and so some surgeons conclude that UKA should not be performed. Other surgeons believe that the main reason for the high revision rate is that UKA is easy to revise and, therefore, the threshold for revision is low. They also believe that UKA has many advantages over TKA such as a faster recovery, lower morbidity and mortality and better function. They therefore conclude that UKA should be undertaken whenever appropriate.

The solution to this argument is to minimise the revision rate of UKA, thereby addressing the main disadvantage of UKA. The evidence suggests that this will be achieved if surgeons use UKA for at least 20% of their knee arthroplasties and use implants that are appropriate for these broad indications.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B(10 Suppl A):3–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 6 | Pages 793 - 801
1 Jun 2015
Liddle AD Pandit H Judge A Murray DW

Whether to use total or unicompartmental knee replacement (TKA/UKA) for end-stage knee osteoarthritis remains controversial. Although UKA results in a faster recovery, lower rates of morbidity and mortality and fewer complications, the long-term revision rate is substantially higher than that for TKA. The effect of each intervention on patient-reported outcome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether six-month patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are better in patients after TKA or UKA, using data from a large national joint registry (NJR).

We carried out a propensity score-matched cohort study which compared six-month PROMs after TKA and UKA in patients enrolled in the NJR for England and Wales, and the English national PROM collection programme. A total of 3519 UKA patients were matched to 10 557 TKAs.

The mean six-month PROMs favoured UKA: the Oxford Knee Score was 37.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.4 to 38.0) for UKA and 36.1 (95% CI 35.9 to 36.3) for TKA; the mean EuroQol EQ-5D index was 0.772 (95% CI 0.764 to 0.780) for UKA and 0.751 (95% CI 0.747 to 0.756) for TKA. UKA patients were more likely to achieve excellent results (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.72, p < 0.001) and to be highly satisfied (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.39, p <  0.001), and were less likely to report complications than those who had undergone TKA.

UKA gives better early patient-reported outcomes than TKA; these differences are most marked for the very best outcomes. Complications and readmission are more likely after TKA. Although the data presented reflect the short-term outcome, they suggest that the high revision rate for UKA may not be because of poorer clinical outcomes. These factors should inform decision-making in patients eligible for either procedure.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:793–801.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 345 - 349
1 Mar 2014
Liddle AD Pandit HG Jenkins C Lobenhoffer P Jackson WFM Dodd CAF Murray DW

The cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement has been demonstrated to have superior fixation on radiographs and a similar early complication rate compared with the cemented version. However, a small number of cases have come to our attention where, after an apparently successful procedure, the tibial component subsides into a valgus position with an increased posterior slope, before becoming well-fixed. We present the clinical and radiological findings of these six patients and describe their natural history and the likely causes. Two underwent revision in the early post-operative period, and in four the implant stabilised and became well-fixed radiologically with a good functional outcome.

This situation appears to be avoidable by minor modifications to the operative technique, and it appears that it can be treated conservatively in most patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:345–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 2 | Pages 181 - 187
1 Feb 2013
Liddle AD Pandit H O’Brien S Doran E Penny ID Hooper GJ Burn PJ Dodd CAF Beverland DE Maxwell AR Murray DW

The Cementless Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (OUKR) was developed to address problems related to cementation, and has been demonstrated in a randomised study to have similar clinical outcomes with fewer radiolucencies than observed with the cemented device. However, before its widespread use it is necessary to clarify contraindications and assess the complications. This requires a larger study than any previously published.

We present a prospective multicentre series of 1000 cementless OUKRs in 881 patients at a minimum follow-up of one year. All patients had radiological assessment aligned to the bone–implant interfaces and clinical scores. Analysis was performed at a mean of 38.2 months (19 to 88) following surgery. A total of 17 patients died (comprising 19 knees (1.9%)), none as a result of surgery; there were no tibial or femoral loosenings. A total of 19 knees (1.9%) had significant implant-related complications or required revision. Implant survival at six years was 97.2%, and there was a partial radiolucency at the bone–implant interface in 72 knees (8.9%), with no complete radiolucencies. There was no significant increase in complication rate compared with cemented fixation (p = 0.87), and no specific contraindications to cementless fixation were identified.

Cementless OUKR appears to be safe and reproducible in patients with end-stage anteromedial osteoarthritis of the knee, with radiological evidence of improved fixation compared with previous reports using cemented fixation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:181–7.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1317 - 1322
1 Oct 2008
Liddle AD Imbuldeniya AM Hunt DM

We present the results of 17 children of Tanner stage 1 or 2 who underwent reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament between 1999 and 2006 using a transphyseal procedure, employing an ipsilateral four-strand hamstring graft. The mean age of the children was 12.1 years (9.5 to 14). The mean follow-up was 44 months (25 to 100). Survival of the graft, the functional outcome and complications were recorded. There was one re-rupture following another injury. Of the remaining patients, all had good or excellent results and a normal International Knee Documentation Committee score. The mean post-operative Lysholm score was 97.5 (sd 2.6) and the mean Tegner activity scale was 7.9 (sd 1.4). One patient had a mild valgus deformity which caused no functional disturbance. No other abnormality or discrepancy of leg length was seen. Measurements with a KT1000 arthrometer showed no significant difference between the normal and the operated legs.

In this small series, transphyseal reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament appeared to be safe in these young children.