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There are concerns regarding nail/medullary canal mismatch and initial stability after cephalomedullary nailing in unstable pertrochanteric fractures. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an additional anteroposterior blocking screw on fixation stability in unstable pertrochanteric fracture models with a nail/medullary canal mismatch after short cephalomedullary nail (CMN) fixation.


Eight finite element models (FEMs), comprising four different femoral diameters, with and without blocking screws, were constructed, and unstable intertrochanteric fractures fixed with short CMNs were reproduced in all FEMs. Micromotions of distal shaft fragment related to proximal fragment, and stress concentrations at the nail construct were measured.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 5 | Pages 556 - 567
1 May 2020
Park JW Lee Y Lee YJ Shin S Kang Y Koo K

Deep gluteal syndrome is an increasingly recognized disease entity, caused by compression of the sciatic or pudendal nerve due to non-discogenic pelvic lesions. It includes the piriformis syndrome, the gemelli-obturator internus syndrome, the ischiofemoral impingement syndrome, and the proximal hamstring syndrome. The concept of the deep gluteal syndrome extends our understanding of posterior hip pain due to nerve entrapment beyond the traditional model of the piriformis syndrome. Nevertheless, there has been terminological confusion and the deep gluteal syndrome has often been undiagnosed or mistaken for other conditions. Careful history-taking, a physical examination including provocation tests, an electrodiagnostic study, and imaging are necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

After excluding spinal lesions, MRI scans of the pelvis are helpful in diagnosing deep gluteal syndrome and identifying pathological conditions entrapping the nerves. It can be conservatively treated with multidisciplinary treatment including rest, the avoidance of provoking activities, medication, injections, and physiotherapy.

Endoscopic or open surgical decompression is recommended in patients with persistent or recurrent symptoms after conservative treatment or in those who may have masses compressing the sciatic nerve.

Many physicians remain unfamiliar with this syndrome and there is a lack of relevant literature. This comprehensive review aims to provide the latest information about the epidemiology, aetiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(5):556–567.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 1 | Pages 31 - 42
1 Jan 2017
Kang K Koh Y Jung M Nam J Son J Lee Y Kim S Kim S


The aim of the current study was to analyse the effects of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency on forces of the posterolateral corner structure and on tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) contact force under dynamic-loading conditions.


A subject-specific knee model was validated using a passive flexion experiment, electromyography data, muscle activation, and previous experimental studies. The simulation was performed on the musculoskeletal models with and without PCL deficiency using a novel force-dependent kinematics method under gait- and squat-loading conditions, followed by probabilistic analysis for material uncertain to be considered.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1458 - 1463
1 Nov 2013
Won S Lee Y Ha Y Suh Y Koo K

Pre-operative planning for total hip replacement (THR) is challenging in hips with severe acetabular deformities, including those with a hypoplastic acetabulum or severe defects and in the presence of arthrodesis or ankylosis. We evaluated whether a Rapid Prototype (RP) model, which is a life-sized reproduction based on three-dimensional CT scans, can determine the feasibility of THR and provide information about the size and position of the acetabular component in severe acetabular deformities. THR was planned using an RP model in 21 complex hips in five men (five hips) and 16 women (16 hips) with a mean age of 47.7 years (24 to 70) at operation. An acetabular component was implanted successfully and THR completed in all hips. The acetabular component used was within 2 mm of the predicted size in 17 hips (80.9%). All of the acetabular components and femoral stems had radiological evidence of bone ingrowth and stability at the final follow-up, without any detectable wear or peri-prosthetic osteolysis. The RP model allowed a simulated procedure pre-operatively and was helpful in determining the feasibility of THR pre-operatively, and to decide on implant type, size and position in complex THRs.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1458–63.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1244 - 1249
1 Sep 2013
Jeon C Park J Chung N Son K Lee Y Kim J

We investigated the spinopelvic morphology and global sagittal balance of patients with a degenerative retrolisthesis or anterolisthesis. A total of 269 consecutive patients with a degenerative spondylolisthesis were included in this study. There were 95 men and 174 women with a mean age of 64.3 years (sd 10.5; 40 to 88). A total of 106 patients had a pure retrolisthesis (R group), 130 had a pure anterolisthesis (A group), and 33 had both (R+A group).

A backward slip was found in the upper lumbar levels (mostly L2 or L3) with an almost equal gender distribution in both the R and R+A groups. The pelvic incidence and sacral slope of the R group were significantly lower than those of the A (both p < 0.001) and R+A groups (both p < 0.001). The lumbar lordosis of the R+A group was significantly greater than that of the R (p = 0.025) and A groups (p = 0.014). The C7 plumb line of the R group was located more posteriorly than that of the A group (p = 0.023), but was no different from than that of the R+A group (p = 0.422). The location of C7 plumb line did not differ between the three groups (p = 0.068). The spinosacral angle of the R group was significantly smaller than that of the A group (p < 0.001) and R+A group (p < 0.001).

Our findings imply that there are two types of degenerative retrolisthesis: one occurs primarily as a result of degeneration in patients with low pelvic incidence, and the other occurs secondarily as a compensatory mechanism in patients with an anterolisthesis and high pelvic incidence.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1244–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 7 | Pages 956 - 960
1 Jul 2012
Kim T Ha Y Kang B Lee Y Koo K

This prospective multicentre study was undertaken to determine whether the timing of the post-operative administration of bisphosphonate affects fracture healing and the rate of complication following an intertrochanteric fracture. Between August 2008 and December 2009, 90 patients with an intertrochanteric fracture who underwent internal fixation were randomised to three groups according to the timing of the commencement of risedronate treatment after surgery: Group A (from one week after surgery), Group B (from one month after surgery), and Group C (from three months after surgery). The radiological time to fracture healing was assessed as the primary endpoint, and the incidence of complications, including excessive displacement or any complication requiring revision surgery, as the secondary endpoint. The mean time to fracture healing post-operatively in groups A, B and C was 10.7 weeks (sd 4.4), 12.9 weeks (sd 6.2) and 12.3 weeks (sd 7.1), respectively (p = 0.420). At 24 weeks after surgery, all fractures had united, except six that had a loss of fixation. Functional outcomes at one year after surgery according to the Koval classification (p = 0.948) and the incidence of complications (p = 0.386) were similar in the three groups.

This study demonstrates that the timing of the post-operative administration of bisphosphonates does not appear to affect the rate of healing of an intertrochanteric fracture or the incidence of complications.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 32 - 36
1 Jan 2012
Nho J Lee Y Kim HJ Ha Y Suh Y Koo K

A variety of radiological methods of measuring version of the acetabular component after total hip replacement (THR) have been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of six methods (those of Lewinnek; Widmer; Hassan et al; Ackland, Bourne and Uhthoff; Liaw et al; and Woo and Morrey) that are currently in use. In 36 consecutive patients who underwent THR, version of the acetabular component was measured by three independent examiners on plain radiographs using these six methods and compared with measurements using CT scans. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities of each measurement were estimated. All measurements on both radiographs and CT scans had excellent intra- and interobserver reliability and the results from each of the six methods correlated well with the CT measurements. However, measurements made using the methods of Widmer and of Ackland, Bourne and Uhthoff were significantly different from the CT measurements (both p < 0.001), whereas measurements made using the remaining four methods were similar to the CT measurements. With regard to reliability and convergent validity, we recommend the use of the methods described by Lewinnek, Hassan et al, Liaw et al and Woo and Morrey for measurement of version of the acetabular component.