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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 5 | Pages 475 - 481
1 May 2024
Lee M Lee G Lee K


The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate and functional outcomes of bone grafting for periprosthetic bone cysts following total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). Additionally, we evaluated the rate of graft incorporation and identified associated predisposing factors using CT scan.


We reviewed a total of 37 ankles (34 patients) that had undergone bone grafting for periprosthetic bone cysts. A CT scan was performed one year after bone grafting to check the status of graft incorporation. For accurate analysis of cyst volumes and their postoperative changes, 3D-reconstructed CT scan processed with 3D software was used. For functional outcomes, variables such as the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale score and the visual analogue scale for pain were measured.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 67 - 73
1 Jun 2021
Lee G Wakelin E Randall A Plaskos C


Neither a surgeon’s intraoperative impression nor the parameters of computer navigation have been shown to be predictive of the outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether a surgeon, with robotic assistance, can predict the outcome as assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) for pain (KPS), one year postoperatively, and establish what factors correlate with poor KOOS scores in a well-aligned and balanced TKA.


A total of 134 consecutive patients who underwent TKA using a dynamic ligament tensioning robotic system with a tibia first resection technique and a cruciate sacrificing ultracongruent TKA system were enrolled into a prospective study. Each TKA was graded based on the final mediolateral ligament balance at 10° and 90° of flexion: 1) < 1 mm difference in the thickness of the tibial insert and that which was planned (n = 75); 2) < 1 mm difference (n = 26); 3) between 1 mm to 2 mm difference (n = 26); and 4) > 2 mm difference (n = 7). The mean one-year KPS score for each grade of TKA was compared and the likelihood of achieving an KPS score of > 90 was calculated. Finally, the factors associated with lower KPS despite achieving a high-grade TKA (grade A and B) were analyzed.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 5 | Pages 301 - 304
17 May 2021
Lee G Clough OT Hayter E Morris J Ashdown T Hardman J Anakwe R

The response to the COVID-19 pandemic has raised the profile and level of interest in the use, acceptability, safety, and effectiveness of virtual outpatient consultations and telemedicine. These models of care are not new but a number of challenges have so far hindered widespread take-up and endorsement of these ways of working. With the response to the COVID-19 pandemic, remote and virtual working and consultation have become the default. This paper explores our experience of and learning from virtual and remote consultation and questions how this experience can be retained and developed for the future.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2(5):301–304.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 9, Issue 7 | Pages 440 - 449
1 Jul 2020
Huang Z Li W Lee G Fang X Xing L Yang B Lin J Zhang W


The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in detecting pathogens from synovial fluid of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) patients.


A group of 75 patients who underwent revision knee or hip arthroplasties were enrolled prospectively. Ten patients with primary arthroplasties were included as negative controls. Synovial fluid was collected for mNGS analysis. Optimal thresholds were determined to distinguish pathogens from background microbes. Synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid were obtained for culture.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 Supple A | Pages 176 - 180
1 Jun 2020
Lee G Colen DL Levin LS Kovach SJ


The integrity of the soft tissue envelope is crucial for successful treatment of infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of limb salvage, infection control, and clinical function following microvascular free flap coverage for salvage of the infected TKA.


We retrospectively reviewed 23 microvascular free tissue transfers for management of soft tissue defects in infected TKA. There were 16 men and seven women with a mean age of 61.2 years (39 to 81). The median number of procedures performed prior to soft tissue coverage was five (2 to 9) and all patients had failed at least one two-stage reimplantation procedure. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Knee Society Scoring system for pain and function.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 6_Supple_B | Pages 84 - 90
1 Jun 2019
Charette RS Sloan M Lee G


Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is gaining popularity as a treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures (FNFs), especially in physiologically younger patients. While THA for osteoarthritis (OA) has demonstrated low complication rates and increased quality of life, results of THA for acute FNF are not as clear. Currently, a THA performed for FNF is included in an institutional arthroplasty bundle without adequate risk adjustment, potentially placing centres participating in fracture care at financial disadvantage. The purpose of this study is to report on perioperative complication rates after THA for FNF compared with elective THA performed for OA of the hip.

Patients and Methods

The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database between 2008 and 2016 was queried. Patients were identified using the THA Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code and divided into groups by diagnosis: OA in one and FNF in another. Univariate statistics were performed. Continuous variables were compared between groups using Student’s t-test, and the chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Multivariate and propensity-matched logistic regression analyses were performed to control for risk factors of interest.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1345 - 1351
1 Oct 2018
Kuo F Lu Y Wu C You H Lee G Lee MS


The aim of this study was to compare the results of 16S/28S rRNA sequencing with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and synovial fluid analysis in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI).

Patients and Methods

Between September 2015 and August 2016, 214 consecutive patients were enrolled. In the study population, there were 25 patients with a PJI and 189 controls. Of the PJI patients, 14 (56%) were women, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis was 65 years (38 to 83). The ESR and CRP levels were measured, and synovial fluid specimens were collected prospectively. Synovial fluid was subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/sequence analysis targeting the 16S/28S rRNA, and to conventional culture. Laboratory personnel who were blind to the clinical information performed all tests. The diagnosis of PJI was based on the criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1603 - 1610
1 Dec 2017
Dattilo J Gittings D Sloan M Charette R Hume E Lee G


To evaluate the effectiveness of an institutionally developed algorithm for evaluation and diagnosis of prosthetic joint injection and to determine the impact of this protocol on overall hospital re-admissions.p

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively evaluated 2685 total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients prior to (1263) and following (1422) the introduction of an infection detection protocol. The protocol used conservative thresholds for C-reactive protein to direct the medical attendant to aspirate the joint. The protocol incorporated a clear set of laboratory and clinical criteria that allowed a patient to be discharged home if all were met. Patients were included if they presented to our emergency department within 120 days post-operatively with concerns for swelling, pain or infection and were excluded if they had an unambiguous infection or if their chief complaint was non-orthopaedic in nature.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1_Supple_A | Pages 78 - 80
1 Jan 2016
Lee G

Patient specific instrumentation (PSI) uses advanced imaging of the knee (CT or MRI) to generate individualised cutting blocks aimed to make the procedure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) more accurate and efficient. However, in this era of healthcare cost consciousness, the value of new technologies needs to be critically evaluated. There have been several comparative studies looking at PSI versus standard instrumentation. Most compare PSI with conventional instrumentation in terms of alignment in the coronal plane, operative time and surgical efficiency, cost effectiveness and short-term outcomes. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also been published. PSI has not been shown to be superior compared with conventional instrumentation in its ability to restore traditional mechanical alignment in primary TKA. Most studies show comparative efficacy and no decrease in the number of outliers in either group. In terms of operative time and efficiency, PSI tended towards decreasing operative time, saving a mean of five minutes per patient (0 to 20). Furthermore, while some cost savings could be realised with less operative time and reduced instrumentation per patient, these savings were overcome by the cost of the CT/MRI and the cutting blocks. Finally, there was no evidence that PSI positively affected clinical outcomes at two days, two months, or two years. Consequently, current evidence does not support routine use of PSI in routine primary TKA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):78–80.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1512 - 1518
1 Nov 2015
Courtney PM Melnic CM Gutsche J Hume EL Lee G

Older patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are increasingly being offered and undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). These patients are more likely to require intensive care support, following surgery. We prospectively evaluated the need for intensive care admission and intervention in a consecutive series of 738 patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. The mean age was 60.6 years (18 to 91; 440 women, 298 men. Risk factors, correlating with the need for critical care intervention, according to published guidelines, were analysed to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from post-operative critical care monitoring. A total of 50 patients (6.7%) in our series required critical care level interventions during their hospital stay. Six independent multivariate clinical predictors were identified (p < 0.001) including a history of congestive heart failure (odds ratio (OR) 24.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.51 to 61.91), estimated blood loss >  1000 mL (OR 17.36, 95% CI 5.36 to 56.19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.90, 95% CI 4.78 to 40.36), intra-operative use of vasopressors (OR 8.10, 95% CI 3.23 to 20.27), revision hip arthroplasty (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.04 to 7.04) and body mass index > 35 kg/m2 (OR 2.70, 95% CI 123 to 5.94). The model was then validated against an independent, previously published data set of 1594 consecutive patients. The use of this risk stratification model can be helpful in predicting which high-risk patients would benefit from a higher level of monitoring and care after elective TJA and aid hospitals in allocating precious critical care resources.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1512–18.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 153 - 156
1 Nov 2012
Su EP Perna M Boettner F Mayman DJ Gerlinger T Barsoum W Randolph J Lee G

Pain, swelling and inflammation are expected during the recovery from total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery. The severity of these factors and how a patient copes with them may determine the ultimate outcome of a TKA. Cryotherapy and compression are frequently used modalities to mitigate these commonly experienced sequelae. However, their effect on range of motion, functional testing, and narcotic consumption has not been well-studied.

A prospective, multi-center, randomised trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a cryopneumatic device on post-operative TKA recovery. Patients were randomised to treatment with a cryopneumatic device or ice with static compression. A total of 280 patients were enrolled at 11 international sites. Both treatments were initiated within three hours post-operation and used at least four times per day for two weeks. The cryopneumatic device was titrated for cooling and pressure by the patient to their comfort level.

Patients were evaluated by physical therapists blinded to the treatment arm. Range of motion (ROM), knee girth, six minute walk test (6MWT) and timed up and go test (TUG) were measured pre-operatively, two- and six-weeks post-operatively. A visual analog pain score and narcotic consumption was also measured post-operatively.

At two weeks post-operatively, both the treatment and control groups had diminished ROM and function compared to pre-operatively. Both groups had increased knee girth compared to pre- operatively. There was no significant difference in ROM, 6MWT, TUG, or knee girth between the 2 groups. We did find a significantly lower amount of narcotic consumption (509 mg morphine equivalents) in the treatment group compared with the control group (680 mg morphine equivalents) at up to two weeks postop, when the cryopneumatic device was being used (p < 0.05). Between two and six weeks, there was no difference in the total amount of narcotics consumed between the two groups. At six weeks, there was a trend toward a greater distance walked in the 6MWT in the treatment group (29.4 meters versus 7.9 meters, p = 0.13). There was a significant difference in the satisfaction scores of patients with their cooling regimen, with greater satisfaction in the treatment group (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in ROM, TUG, VAS, or knee girth at six weeks. There was no difference in adverse events or compliance between the two groups.

A cryopneumatic device used after TKA appeared to decrease the need for narcotic medication from hospital discharge to 2 weeks post-operatively. There was also a trend toward a greater distance walked in the 6MWT. Patient satisfaction with the cryopneumatic cooling regimen was significantly higher than with the control treatment.