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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1354 - 1365
1 Oct 2017
Patrick S McDowell A Lee A Frau A Martin U Gardner E McLorinan G Eames N


The aim of this study was to determine whether the sequential application of povidone iodine-alcohol (PVI) followed by chlorhexidine gluconate-alcohol (CHG) would reduce surgical wound contamination to a greater extent than PVI applied twice in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

Patients and Methods

A single-centre, interventional, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was undertaken, involving 407 patients who underwent elective spinal surgery.

For 203 patients, the skin was disinfected before surgery using PVI (10% [w/w (1% w/w available iodine)] in 95% industrial denatured alcohol, povidone iodine; Videne Alcoholic Tincture) twice, and for 204 patients using PVI once followed by CHG (2% [w/v] chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% [v/v] isopropyl alcohol; Chloraprep with tint). The primary outcome measure was contamination of the wound determined by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth from samples taken after disinfection.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 550 - 557
1 Apr 2015
Mollon B Lee A Busse JW Griffin AM Ferguson PC Wunder JS Theodoropoulos J

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative process of the synovium which most commonly affects the knee and occurs in either a localised (LPVNS) or a diffuse form (DPVNS). The effect of different methods of surgical synovectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy on the rate of recurrence is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and identified 35 observational studies in English which reported the use of surgical synovectomy to treat PVNS of the knee.

A meta-analysis included 630 patients, 137 (21.8%) of whom had a recurrence after synovectomy. For patients with DPVNS, low-quality evidence found that the rate of recurrence was reduced by both open synovectomy (odds ration (OR) = 0.47; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90; p = 0.024) and combined open and arthroscopic synovectomy (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.58; p = 0.003) compared with arthroscopic surgery. Very low-quality evidence found that the rate of recurrence of DPVNS was reduced by peri-operative radiotherapy (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.70; p = 0.01). Very low-quality evidence suggested that the rate of recurrence of LPVNS was not related to the surgical approach.

This meta-analysis suggests that open synovectomy or synovectomy combined with peri-operative radiotherapy for DPVNS is associated with a reduced rate of recurrence. Large long-term prospective multicentre observational studies, with a focus on both rate of recurrence and function, are required to confirm these findings.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:550–7.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 2 | Pages 313 - 318
1 Mar 1995
Lee A Campbell J Hoffman E

We reviewed 33 children with tuberculosis of the knee treated during the period from 1979 to 1991. All were treated with triple chemotherapy, using rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide for nine months. No patient had a synovectomy; surgery was limited to open biopsy or salvage procedures such as posterior release and arthrodesis for late stages of the disease. The radiological appearance of the knee at presentation predicted the outcome. The 30 patients with stage-1 (normal) or stage-2 (osteomyelitic) disease had excellent or good results; the three with narrowed joint spaces in stage 3 or stage 4 (arthritic) had fair or poor results. Early active mobilisation, as against long-term immobilisation, seemed to have no effect on the outcome of stage-1 or stage-2 disease.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 3 | Pages 352 - 356
1 May 1994
Lee A MacLean J Newton D

There is still some controversy about the reduction of unilateral and bilateral facet dislocations in the cervical spine. We have reviewed the notes and radiographs of 210 such patients; reduction was attempted by manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) in 91, and by rapid traction under sedation in 119, using weights up to 150 lb (68 kg). Our results suggest that early reduction in patients with neurological deficit gives the best chance of neurological recovery, that rapid traction is more often successful than MUA, and that traction is safer than MUA. We found that the use of heavy weights with close monitoring was safe and brought about reduction in an average time of 21 minutes. We recommend this technique for the reduction of all cervical facet dislocations.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 69-B, Issue 4 | Pages 620 - 624
1 Aug 1987
Benjamin J Gie G Lee A Ling R Volz R

We report the results of simple laboratory experiments which showed that bleeding pressures known to occur at the bone surface during total hip arthroplasty may compromise the integrity of the bone-cement interface and the cement itself. Such undesirable effects can be prevented by maintaining adequate pressure on the cement until its increased viscosity can resist displacement caused by the bleeding pressure.