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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 6 | Pages 725 - 729
1 Jun 2009
Livesey C Wylde V Descamps S Estela CM Bannister GC Learmonth ID Blom AW

We undertook a randomised controlled trial to compare the outcomes of skin adhesive and staples for skin closure in total hip replacement. The primary outcome was the cosmetic appearance of the scar at three months using a surgeon-rated visual analogue scale. In all, 90 patients were randomised to skin closure using either skin adhesive (n = 45) or staples (n = 45). Data on demographics, surgical details, infection and oozing were collected during the in-patient stay. Further data on complications, patient satisfaction and evaluation of cosmesis were collected at three-month follow-up, and a photograph of the scar was taken. An orthopaedic and a plastic surgeon independently evaluated the cosmetic appearance of the scars from the photographs. No significant difference was found between groups in the cosmetic appearance of scars at three months (p = 0.172), the occurrence of complications (p = 0.3), or patient satisfaction (p = 0.42). Staples were quicker and easier to use than skin adhesive and also less expensive. Skin adhesive and surgical staples are both effective skin closure methods in total hip replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 1 | Pages 37 - 43
1 Jan 2009
Hassaballa M Mehendale S Poniatowski S Kalantzis G Smith E Learmonth ID

Loss of bone stock is a major problem in revision surgery of the hip. Impaction bone grafting of the femur is frequently used when dealing with deficient bone stock. In this retrospective study a consecutive series of 68 patients (69 hips) who had revision of a hip replacement with femoral impaction grafting were reviewed. Irradiated bone allograft was used in all hips. Radiological measurement of subsidence of the stem, incorporation of the graft and remodelling was carried out and showed incorporation of the graft in 26 of 69 hips (38%). However, there was no evidence of trabecular remodelling. Moderate subsidence of 5 mm to 10 mm occurred in ten hips (14.5%), and massive subsidence of > 10 mm in five (7.2%).

The results of this study are less favourable than those of others describing studies of revision of the femoral stem using impaction bone grafting. The absence of the characteristic changes of graft remodelling noted in other series raises the question as to whether irradiated bone graft may be a significant factor influencing the post-operative outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1422 - 1427
1 Nov 2008
Utting MR Raghuvanshi M Amirfeyz R Blom AW Learmonth ID Bannister GC

We have reviewed 70 Harris-Galante uncemented acetabular components implanted as hybrid hip replacements with cemented stems between 1991 and 1995 in 53 patients whose mean age was 40 years (19 to 49). The mean follow-up was for 13.6 years (12 to 16) with no loss to follow-up. We assessed the patients both clinically and radiologically.

The mean Oxford hip score was 20 (12 to 46) and the mean Harris hip score 81 (37 to 100) at the final review. Radiologically, 27 hips (39%) had femoral osteolysis, 13 (19%) acetabular osteolysis, and 31 (44%) radiolucent lines around the acetabular component. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for the outcomes of revision of the acetabular component, revision of the component and polyethylene liner, and impending revision for progressive osteolysis.

The cumulative survival for revision of the acetabular component was 94% (95% confidence interval 88.4 to 99.7), for the component and liner 84% (95% confidence interval 74.5 to 93.5) and for impending revision 55.3% (95% confidence interval 40.6 to 70) at 16 years.

Uncemented acetabular components with polyethylene liners undergo silent lysis and merit regular long-term radiological review.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 5 | Pages 567 - 573
1 May 2007
Keegan GM Learmonth ID Case CP

The long-term effects of metal-on-metal arthroplasty are currently under scrutiny because of the potential biological effects of metal wear debris. This review summarises data describing the release, dissemination, uptake, biological activity, and potential toxicity of metal wear debris released from alloys currently used in modern orthopaedics. The introduction of risk assessment for the evaluation of metal alloys and their use in arthroplasty patients is discussed and this should include potential harmful effects on immunity, reproduction, the kidney, developmental toxicity, the nervous system and carcinogenesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1636 - 1638
1 Dec 2005
Blom AW Astle L Loveridge J Learmonth ID

Polyethylene liners of modular acetabular components wear sometimes need to be replaced, despite the metal shell being well fixed. Replacing the liner is a relatively simple procedure, but very little is known of the outcome of revision. We prospectively followed up 1126 Harris-Galante I metal-backed, uncemented components for between nine and 19 years. We found 38 (3.4%) liners of 1126 acetabular components wore and required revision. These revisions were then followed up for a mean of 4.8 years. The rate of dislocation was 28.9%. Nine of the dislocations occurred once and two were recurrent.

The overall secondary revision rate was three of 38 total hip replacements (7.9%) at a mean follow-up of 4.8 years. This gives a 92.1% survivorship (35 of 38) at under five years. In isolated revision of a liner, we had a complication rate of 23% (three of 13). In revision of a liner combined with revision of the femoral stem, there was a complication rate of 48% (12 of 25). We discuss possible reasons for the high dislocation rates.

Leaving the well-fixed acetabular shell in situ leads to an increased risk of instability. However, this needs to be balanced against the otherwise low complication rate for revision of the liner. Patients should be consented accordingly.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1439 - 1444
1 Oct 2005
Davies AP Sood A Lewis AC Newson R Learmonth ID Case CP

Previous research has shown an increase in chromosomal aberrations in patients with worn implants. The type of aberration depended on the type of metal alloy in the prosthesis. We have investigated the metal-specific difference in the level of DNA damage (DNA stand breaks and alkali labile sites) induced by culturing human fibroblasts in synovial fluid retrieved at revision arthroplasty.

All six samples from revision cobalt-chromium metal-on-metal and four of six samples from cobalt-chromium metal-on-polyethylene prostheses caused DNA damage. By contrast, none of six samples from revision stainless-steel metal-on-polyethylene prostheses caused significant damage. Samples of cobalt-chromium alloy left to corrode in phosphate-buffered saline also caused DNA damage and this depended on a synergistic effect between the cobalt and chromium ions.

Our results further emphasise that epidemiological studies of orthopaedic implants should take account of the type of metal alloy used.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 6 | Pages 786 - 789
1 Jun 2005
Grobler GP Learmonth ID Bernstein BP Dower BJ

We retrospectively reviewed, ten years after surgery, 100 consecutive total hip replacements in which the Duraloc 300 cup had been used. Post-operative radiographs were analysed for placement of the cup and interface gaps and follow-up radiographs for lucent lines, osteolysis, wear and migration.

All the components were found to be stable with no evidence of loosening. The mean rate of wear was 0.12 mm/year. Three hips developed acetabular osteolysis at the level of the apex hole. Two have successfully undergone bone grafting without removal of the implants and one patient is awaiting surgery. The Duraloc 300 cup has a survival of 100% at ten years with no aseptic loosening and a low incidence of pelvic osteolysis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 3 | Pages 421 - 425
1 Mar 2005
Blom AW Cunningham JL Hughes G Lawes TJ Smith N Blunn G Learmonth ID Goodship AE

This study investigates the use of porous biphasic ceramics as graft extenders in impaction grafting of the femur during revision hip surgery.

Impaction grafting of the femur was performed in four groups of sheep. Group one received pure allograft, group two 50% allograft and 50% BoneSave, group three 50% allograft and 50% BoneSave type 2 and group four 10% allograft and 90% BoneSave as the graft material. Function was assessed using an index of pre- and post-operative peak vertical ground reaction force ratios. Changes in bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning. Loosening and subsidence were assessed radiographically and by histological examination of the explanted specimens.

There was no statistically significant difference between the four groups after 18 months of unrestricted functional loading for all outcome measures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1192 - 1196
1 Nov 2004
Maccauro G Piconi C Burger W Pilloni L De Santis E Muratori F Learmonth ID

We studied factors contributing to the initiation of fracture and failure of a zirconia ceramic femoral head. The materials retrieved during a revision total hip replacement were submitted to either visual, stereomicroscopic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. X-ray diffraction was performed in order to investigate the extent of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transition. Histological examination was performed on the periprosthetic tissues.

The results showed that failure was due to the propagation during clinical use of defects which may have been introduced into the material during the processing of the ceramic, rather than those intrinsic to zirconia. The literature relating to previous failures of zirconia components is reviewed.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 86-B, Issue 1 | Pages 13 - 19
1 Jan 2004
Learmonth ID

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 5 | Pages 706 - 711
1 Jul 2003
Whitehouse SL Lingard EA Katz JN Learmonth ID

We used prospective data from 862 total knee and 716 total hip replacements three years after surgery in order to derive and validate a reduced Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) function scale. The reduced scale was derived using the advice of clinical experts as well as analysis of data. The scale was tested for validity, reliability and responsiveness.

Items which were retained included: ascending stairs, rising from sitting, walking on the flat, getting in or out of a car, putting on socks, rising from bed, and sitting.

The reduced and full scales had comparable, moderate correlations with other measures of function, confirming convergent validity. Cronbach’s alpha was high (α > 0.85) with the reduced scale confirming reliability. Responsiveness was greater for the reduced scale (full = 1.4, reduced = 1.6).

This reduced version of the WOMAC function scale provides a practical, valid, reliable and responsive alternative to the full function scale for use after total joint replacement. Further work is needed to demonstrate its wider applicability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1075 - 1081
1 Sep 2001
Doherty AT Howell RT Ellis LA Bisbinas I Learmonth ID Newson R Case CP

The long-term biological effects of wear debris are unknown. We have investigated whether there is any evidence of cumulative mutagenic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing revision arthroplasty of predominantly metal-on-plastic total hip replacements compared with those at primary arthroplasty.

There was a threefold increase in aneuploidy and a twofold increase in chromosomal translocations which could not be explained by the confounding variables of smoking, gender, age and diagnostic radiographs. In the patients with TiVaAl prostheses there was a fivefold increase in aneuploidy but no increase in chromosomal translocations. By contrast, in patients with cobalt-chrome prostheses there was a 2.5-fold increase in aneuploidy and a 3.5-fold increase in chromosomal translocations. In six patients with stainless-steel prostheses there was no increase in either aneuploidy or chromosomal translocations.

Our results suggest that future epidemiological studies of the putative long-term risks of joint replacement should take into account the type of alloy used in the prosthesis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 2 | Pages 177 - 182
1 Mar 2001
Taylor AH Shannon M Whitehouse SL Lee MB Learmonth ID

We describe the results of 76 total arthroplasties of the hip for stage-III or stage-IV avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Harris Galante Porous cups were used in 63 patients between 1986 and 1994 and followed prospectively. We reviewed 70 hips with a follow-up of more than five years (mean 7.6).

At the latest review the mean Harris Hip Score had improved from a preoperative value of 29 ± 14.7 to 94 ± 6.8. Radiologically, there was no evidence of acetabular migration. The rate of revision for the femoral component was 8.6%, three being undertaken for loosening and three to allow downsizing of the femoral head. The rate of revision for the acetabular component was 7.1% (five cups). At the time of revision none of the cups was clinically loose, and only required the liner to be changed.

The rate of complications was low with no case of deep infection or dislocation, but nine of the 76 hips (11.8%) showed grade-III heterotopic ossification. Previous studies of patients undergoing cemented total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of advanced avascular necrosis have indicated a high incidence of loosening of the acetabular component. Our findings show good medium-term results using the Harris Galante Porous cup for acetabular reconstruction, together with a variety of cemented femoral components, for the treatment of this difficult problem.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 80-B, Issue 3 | Pages 414 - 416
1 May 1998
Eldridge JDJ Avramidis K Lee M Learmonth ID

There are several techniques for the accurate measurement of the migration of components after arthroplasty some of which require the operative placement of tantalum balls. We have reviewed the position and migration of these markers in 64 patients after total hip arthroplasty.

In 40% of cases, one or more balls was seen to be outside the proximal femur on the postoperative radiograph, although all were considered to be within the bone at operation. In two hips, one ball appeared to have migrated towards the joint, although none was seen within the joint. Misplacement was not related to the experience of the surgeon or the operative approach.

Migration analysis which necessitates the insertion of tantalum balls requires careful technique to avoid a potential source of third-body wear. It should probably be used only for research in small series of patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 79-B, Issue 4 | Pages 694 - 694
1 Jul 1997

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 78-B, Issue 4 | Pages 559 - 561
1 Jul 1996
Learmonth ID Allen PE

We describe a modified lateral approach to the hip which exploits the functional continuity of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis and their dense crescentic attachment to the greater trochanter. The gluteus medius is not incised or split, but is detached and mobilised with gluteus minimus as one unit. This facilitates reattachment of the glutei and helps to preserve abductor function.