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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 2 | Pages 271 - 277
1 Feb 2009
Toms AD Barker RL McClelland D Chua L Spencer-Jones R Kuiper J

The treatment of bony defects of the tibia at the time of revision total knee replacement is controversial. The place of compacted morsellised bone graft is becoming established, particularly in contained defects. It has previously been shown that the initial stability of impaction-grafted trays in the contained defects is equivalent to that of an uncemented primary knee replacement. However, there is little biomechanical evidence on which to base a decision in the treatment of uncontained defects. We undertook a laboratory-based biomechanical study comparing three methods of graft containment in segmental medial tibial defects and compared them with the use of a modular metal augment to bypass the defect.

Using resin models of the proximal tibia with medial defects representing either 46% or 65% of the medial cortical rim, repair of the defect was accomplished using mesh, cement or a novel bag technique, after which impaction bone grafting was used to fill the contained defects and a tibial component was cemented in place. As a control, a cemented tibial component with modular metal augments was used in identical defects. All specimens were submitted to cyclical mechanical loading, during which cyclical and permanent tray displacement were determined.

The results showed satisfactory stability with all the techniques except the bone bag method. Using metal augments gave the highest initial stability, but obviously lacked any potential for bone restoration.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1152 - 1157
1 Sep 2008
Khan M Kuiper J Richardson JB

Wear of metal-on-metal bearings causes elevated levels of cobalt and chromium in blood and body fluids. Metal-on-metal bearings have two distinct wear phases. In the early phase, the wear rate is high. Later, it decreases and the bearing enters a steady-state phase. It is expected that as the wear rates decline, the level of cobalt detected in plasma will also decrease. We studied the baseline and exercise-related cobalt rise in 21 patients (13 men and eight women) with a mean age of 54 years (38 to 80) who had undergone successful hip resurfacing at a mean of 44 months (10 to 96) earlier. Our results showed that circulating baseline cobalt levels were not significantly correlated with the time since implantation (r = 0.08, p = 0.650). By contrast, the exercise-related cobalt rise was directly correlated with the inclination angle of the acetabular component (r = 0.47, p = 0.032) and inversely correlated with the time since implantation (r = −0.5, p = 0.020).

Inclination of the acetabular component should be kept less than 40° to decrease the production of wear debris.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 5 | Pages 656 - 663
1 May 2005
Toms AD McClelland D Chua L de Waal Malefijt M Verdonschot N Jones RS Kuiper J

Clinical experience of impaction bone grafting for revision knee arthroplasty is limited, with initial stability of the tibial tray emerging as a major concern. The length of the stem and its diameter have been altered to improve stability. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the type of stem, support of the rim and graft impaction on early stability of the tray.

We developed a system for impaction grafting of trays which we used with morsellised bone in artificial tibiae. Trays with short, long thick or long thin stems were implanted, with or without support of the rim. They were cyclically loaded while measuring relative movement.

Long-stemmed trays migrated 4.5 times less than short-stemmed trays, regardless of diameter. Those with support migrated 2.8 times less than those without. The migration of short-stemmed trays correlated inversely with the density of the impacted groups. That of impaction-grafted tibial trays was in the range reported for uncemented primary trays. Movements of short-stemmed trays without cortical support were largest and sensitive to the degree of compaction of the graft. If support of the rim was sufficient or a long stem was used, impacted morsellised bone graft achieved adequate initial stability.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 77-B, Issue 3 | Pages 412 - 416
1 May 1995
Richardson J Gardner T Hardy Evans M Kuiper J Kenwright J

We studied the effect of 'dynamisation' on tibial fractures in six patients treated by the Dynamic Axial Fixator. In the early stages, peak cyclic movement at two to four weeks averaged 0.75 mm (0.19 to 1.02) on the medial side of the bone and 0.86 mm (0.21 to 1.25) on the lateral side. The amount of movement correlated with the applied load and the fracture stiffness. After unlocking the fixator column at six weeks, progressive closure of the gap averaged 1.3 mm (0.1 to 3.5). Cyclic movement is produced by early weight-bearing with the fixator column locked. Progressive closure occurs after unlocking the column, and is often associated with a reduction in cyclic movements. The effects of dynamisation on movement at the fracture site should be defined separately, in terms of cyclic movement and of progressive closure.