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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 4 | Pages 231 - 244
1 Apr 2023
Lukas KJ Verhaegen JCF Livock H Kowalski E Phan P Grammatopoulos G


Spinopelvic characteristics influence the hip’s biomechanical behaviour. However, to date there is little knowledge defining what ‘normal’ spinopelvic characteristics are. This study aims to determine how static spinopelvic characteristics change with age and ethnicity among asymptomatic, healthy individuals.


This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify English studies, including ≥ 18-year-old participants, without evidence of hip or spine pathology or a history of previous surgery or interventional treatment, documenting lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI). From a total of 2,543 articles retrieved after the initial database search, 61 articles were eventually selected for data extraction.