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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1043 - 1049
1 Aug 2016
Huijbregts HJTAM Khan RJK Fick DP Hall MJ Punwar SA Sorensen E Reid MJ Vedove SD Haebich S


We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the accuracy of positioning and alignment of the components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), comparing those undertaken using standard intramedullary cutting jigs and those with patient-specific instruments (PSI).

Patients and Methods

There were 64 TKAs in the standard group and 69 in the PSI group.

The post-operative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle and positioning was investigated using CT scans. Deviation of > 3° from the planned position was regarded as an outlier. The operating time, Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) scores were recorded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 6 | Pages 764 - 769
1 Jun 2013
Roche JJW Jones CDS Khan RJK Yates PJ

The piriformis muscle is an important landmark in the surgical anatomy of the hip, particularly the posterior approach for total hip replacement (THR). Standard orthopaedic teaching dictates that the tendon must be cut in to allow adequate access to the superior part of the acetabulum and the femoral medullary canal. However, in our experience a routine THR can be performed through a posterior approach without sacrificing this tendon.

We dissected the proximal femora of 15 cadavers in order to clarify the morphological anatomy of the piriformis tendon. We confirmed that the tendon attaches on the crest of the greater trochanter, in a position superior to the trochanteric fossa, away from the entry point for broaching the intramedullary canal during THR. The tendon attachment site encompassed the summit and medial aspect of the greater trochanter as well as a variable attachment to the fibrous capsule of the hip joint. In addition we dissected seven cadavers resecting all posterior attachments except the piriformis muscle and tendon in order to study their relations to the hip joint, as the joint was flexed. At flexion of 90° the piriformis muscle lay directly posterior to the hip joint.

The piriform fossa is a term used by orthopaedic surgeons to refer the trochanteric fossa and normally has no relation to the attachment site of the piriformis tendon. In hip flexion the piriformis lies directly behind the hip joint and might reasonably be considered to contribute to the stability of the joint.

We conclude that the anatomy of the piriformis muscle is often inaccurately described in the current surgical literature and terms are used and interchanged inappropriately.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:764–9.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 43 - 50
1 Jan 2012
Khan RJK Maor D Hofmann M Haebich S

We undertook a randomised controlled trial to compare the piriformis-sparing approach with the standard posterior approach used for total hip replacement (THR). We recruited 100 patients awaiting THR and randomly allocated them to either the piriformis-sparing approach or the standard posterior approach. Pre- and post-operative care programmes and rehabilitation regimes were identical for both groups. Observers were blinded to the allocation throughout; patients were blinded until the two-week assessment. Follow-up was at six weeks, three months, one year and two years. In all 11 patients died or were lost to follow-up.

There was no significant difference between groups for any of the functional outcomes. However, for patients in the piriformis-sparing group there was a trend towards a better six-minute walk test at two weeks and greater patient satisfaction at six weeks. The acetabular components were less anteverted (p = 0.005) and had a lower mean inclination angle (p = 0.02) in the piriformis-sparing group. However, in both groups the mean component positions were within Lewinnek’s safe zone. Surgeons perceived the piriformis-sparing approach to be significantly more difficult than the standard approach (p = 0.03), particularly in obese patients.

In conclusion, performing THR through a shorter incision involving sparing piriformis is more difficult and only provides short-term benefits compared with the standard posterior approach.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 7 | Pages 870 - 876
1 Jul 2006
Khan RJK Fick D Alakeson R Haebich S de Cruz M Nivbrant B Wood D

We treated 34 patients with recurrent dislocation of the hip with a constrained acetabular component. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis was performed to assess migration of the prosthesis.

The mean clinical follow-up was 3.0 years (2.2 to 4.8) and the radiological follow-up was 2.7 years (2.0 to 4.8). At the latest review six patients had died and none was lost to follow-up. There were four acetabular revisions, three for aseptic loosening and one for deep infection. Another acetabular component was radiologically loose with progressive radiolucent lines in all Gruen zones and was awaiting revision. The overall rate of aseptic loosening was 11.8% (4 of 34). Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis in the non-revised components confirmed migration of up to 1.06 mm of translation and 2.32° of rotation at 24 months. There was one case of dislocation and dissociation of the component in the same patient. Of the 34 patients, 33 (97.1%) had no further episodes of dislocation.

The constrained acetabular component reported in our study was effective in all but one patient with instability of the hip, but the rate of aseptic loosening was higher than has been reported previously and requires further investigation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 2 | Pages 238 - 242
1 Feb 2006
Khan RJK Fick D Yao F Tang K Hurworth M Nivbrant B Wood D

We carried out a blinded prospective randomised controlled trial comparing 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA), subcuticular suture (monocryl) and skin staples for skin closure following total hip and total knee arthroplasty. We included 102 hip replacements and 85 of the knee.

OCA was associated with less wound discharge in the first 24 hours for both the hip and the knee. However, with total knee replacement there was a trend for a more prolonged wound discharge with OCA. With total hip replacement there was no significant difference between the groups for either early or late complications. Closure of the wound with skin staples was significantly faster than with OCA or suture. There was no significant difference in the length of stay in hospital, Hollander wound evaluation score (cosmesis) or patient satisfaction between the groups at six weeks for either hips or knees.

We consider that skin staples are the skin closure of choice for both hip and knee replacements.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1150 - 1155
1 Nov 2002
Parker MJ Khan RJK Crawford J Pryor GA

A total of 455 patients aged over 70 years with a displaced intracapsular fracture of the proximal femur was randomised to be treated either by hemiarthroplasty or internal fixation. The preoperative characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar.

Internal fixation has a shorter length of anaesthesia (36 minutes versus 57 minutes, p < 0.0001), lower operative blood loss (28 ml versus 177 ml, p < 0.0001) and lower transfusion requirements (0.04 units versus 0.39 units, p < 0.0001). In the internal fixation group 90 patients required 111 additional surgical procedures while only 15 additional operations on the hip were needed in 12 patients in the arthroplasty group. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality between the groups at one year (61/226 versus 63/229, p = 0.91), but there was a tendency for an improved survival in the older less mobile patients treated by internal fixation. For the survivors assessed at one, two and three years from injury there were no differences with regard to the outcome for pain and mobility. Limb shortening was more common after internal fixation (7.0 mm versus 3.6 mm, p = 0.004).

We recommend that displaced intracapsular fractures in the elderly should generally be treated by arthroplasty but that internal fixation may be appropriate for those who are very frail.