header advert
Results 1 - 20 of 42
Results per page:
The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 28 - 37
1 Jan 2024
Gupta S Sadczuk D Riddoch FI Oliver WM Davidson E White TO Keating JF Scott CEH


This study aims to determine the rate of and risk factors for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after operative management of tibial plateau fractures (TPFs) in older adults.


This is a retrospective cohort study of 182 displaced TPFs in 180 patients aged ≥ 60 years, over a 12-year period with a minimum follow-up of one year. The mean age was 70.7 years (SD 7.7; 60 to 89), and 139/180 patients (77.2%) were female. Radiological assessment consisted of fracture classification; pre-existing knee osteoarthritis (OA); reduction quality; loss of reduction; and post-traumatic OA. Fracture depression was measured on CT, and the volume of defect estimated as half an oblate spheroid. Operative management, complications, reoperations, and mortality were recorded.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 4 | Pages 273 - 282
20 Apr 2023
Gupta S Yapp LZ Sadczuk D MacDonald DJ Clement ND White TO Keating JF Scott CEH


To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) after tibial plateau fracture (TPF) compared to preinjury and population matched values, and what aspects of treatment were most important to patients.


We undertook a retrospective, case-control study of 67 patients at mean 3.5 years (SD 1.3; 1.3 to 6.1) after TPF (47 patients underwent fixation, and 20 nonoperative management). Patients completed EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, Lower Limb Function Scale (LEFS), and Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) for current and recalled prefracture status. Propensity score matching for age, sex, and deprivation in a 1:5 ratio was performed using patient level data from the Health Survey for England to obtain a control group for HRQoL comparison. The primary outcome was the difference in actual (TPF cohort) and expected (matched control) EQ-5D-3L score after TPF.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 4 | Pages 227 - 235
1 Apr 2021
Makaram NS Leow JM Clement ND Oliver WM Ng ZH Simpson C Keating JF


The primary aim of this study was to identify independent predictors associated with nonunion and delayed union of tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. The secondary aim was to assess the Radiological Union Scale for Tibial fractures (RUST) score as an early predictor of tibial fracture nonunion.


A consecutive series of 647 patients who underwent intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphyseal fractures were identified from a trauma database. Demographic data, comorbidities, smoking status, alcohol consumption, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and steroid use were documented. Details regarding mechanism of injury, fracture classification, complications, and further surgery were recorded. Nonunion was defined as the requirement for revision surgery to achieve union. Delayed union was defined as a RUST score < 10 at six months postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 7 | Pages 933 - 940
1 Jul 2020
Maempel JF Clement ND Wickramasinghe NR Duckworth AD Keating JF


The aim was to compare long-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after operative and nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture in the context of a randomized controlled trial.


PROMs including the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA), Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D), satisfaction, net promoter score and data regarding re-rupture, and venous thromboembolic rates were collected for patients randomized to receive either operative or nonoperative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture in a previous study. Of the 80 patients originally randomized, 64 (33 treated surgically, 31 nonoperatively) patients were followed up at a mean of 15.7 years (13.4 to 17.7).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 6 | Pages 716 - 726
1 Jun 2020
Scott CEH Holland G Krahelski O Murray IR Keating JF Keenan OJF


This study aims to determine the proportion of patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) possibly suitable for partial (PKA) or combined partial knee arthroplasty (CPKA) according to patterns of full-thickness cartilage loss and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status.


A cross-sectional analysis of 300 consecutive patients (mean age 69 years (SD 9.5, 44 to 91), mean body mass index (BMI) 30.6 (SD 5.5, 20 to 53), 178 female (59.3%)) undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥ 3 knee OA was conducted. The point of maximal tibial bone loss on preoperative lateral radiographs was determined as a percentage of the tibial diameter. At surgery, Lachman’s test and ACL status were recorded. The presence of full-thickness cartilage loss within 16 articular surface regions (two patella, eight femoral, six tibial) was recorded.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 3 | Pages 301 - 309
1 Mar 2020
Keenan OJF Holland G Maempel JF Keating JF Scott CEH


Although knee osteoarthritis (OA) is diagnosed and monitored radiologically, actual full-thickness cartilage loss (FTCL) has rarely been correlated with radiological classification. This study aims to analyze which classification system correlates best with FTCL and to assess their reliability.


A prospective study of 300 consecutive patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for OA (mean age 69 years (44 to 91; standard deviation (SD) 9.5), 178 (59%) female). Two blinded examiners independently graded preoperative radiographs using five common systems: Kellgren-Lawrence (KL); International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC); Fairbank; Brandt; and Ahlbäck. Interobserver agreement was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intraoperatively, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status and the presence of FTCL in 16 regions of interest were recorded. Radiological classification and FTCL were correlated using the Spearman correlation coefficient.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 7 | Pages 957 - 958
1 Jul 2018
Mackenzie SP Carter TH Jefferies JG Wilby JBJ Hall P Duckworth AD Keating JF White TO

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 7 | Pages 959 - 965
1 Jul 2018
Mackenzie SP Carter TH Jefferies JG Wilby JBJ Hall P Duckworth AD Keating JF White TO


The Edinburgh Trauma Triage Clinic (TTC) streamlines outpatient care through consultant-led ‘virtual’ triage of referrals and the direct discharge of minor fractures from the Emergency Department. We compared the patient outcomes for simple fractures of the radial head, little finger metacarpal, and fifth metatarsal before and after the implementation of the TTC.

Patients and Methods

A total of 628 patients who had sustained these injuries over a one-year period were identified. There were 337 patients in the pre-TTC group and 289 in the post-TTC group. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (QuickDASH) or Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI), EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, satisfaction rates, and return to work/sport were assessed six months post-injury. The development of late complications was excluded by an electronic record evaluation at three years post-injury. A cost analysis was performed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1399 - 1408
1 Oct 2017
Scott CEH MacDonald D Moran M White TO Patton JT Keating JF


To evaluate the outcomes of cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) following a fracture of the acetabulum, with evaluation of risk factors and comparison with a patient group with no history of fracture.

Patients and Methods

Between 1992 and 2016, 49 patients (33 male) with mean age of 57 years (25 to 87) underwent cemented THA at a mean of 6.5 years (0.1 to 25) following acetabular fracture. A total of 38 had undergone surgical fixation and 11 had been treated non-operatively; 13 patients died at a mean of 10.2 years after THA (0.6 to 19). Patients were assessed pre-operatively, at one year and at final follow-up (mean 9.1 years, 0.5 to 23) using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS). Implant survivorship was assessed. An age and gender-matched cohort of THAs performed for non-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) or avascular necrosis (AVN) (n = 98) were used to compare complications and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4 | Pages 503 - 507
1 Apr 2017
White TO Mackenzie SP Carter TH Jefferies JG Prescott OR Duckworth AD Keating JF


Fracture clinics are often characterised by the referral of large numbers of unselected patients with minor injuries not requiring investigation or intervention, long waiting times and recurrent unnecessary reviews. Our experience had been of an unsustainable system and we implemented a ‘Trauma Triage Clinic’ (TTC) in order to rationalise and regulate access to our fracture service. The British Orthopaedic Association’s guidelines have required a prospective evaluation of this change of practice, and we report our experience and results.

Patients and Methods

We review the management of all 12 069 patients referred to our service in the calendar year 2014, with a minimum of one year follow-up during the calendar year 2015.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 4 | Pages 534 - 541
1 Apr 2016
Tsang STJ Mills LA Frantzias J Baren JP Keating JF Simpson AHRW


The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the failure of exchange nailing in nonunion of tibial diaphyseal fractures.

Patients and Methods

A cohort of 102 tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 101 patients with a mean age of 36.9 years (15 to 74) were treated between January 1992 and December 2012 by exchange nailing. Of which 33 (32%) were initially open injuries. The median time from primary fixation to exchange nailing was 6.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 4.3 to 9.8 months).

The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union.

Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify risk factors for failure to achieve union.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 4 | Pages 532 - 538
1 Apr 2015
Scott CEH Davidson E MacDonald DJ White TO Keating JF

Radiological evidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after fracture of the tibial plateau is common but end-stage arthritis which requires total knee arthroplasty is much rarer.

The aim of this study was to examine the indications for, and outcomes of, total knee arthroplasty after fracture of the tibial plateau and to compare this with an age and gender-matched cohort of TKAs carried out for primary osteoarthritis.

Between 1997 and 2011, 31 consecutive patients (23 women, eight men) with a mean age of 65 years (40 to 89) underwent TKA at a mean of 24 months (2 to 124) after a fracture of the tibial plateau. Of these, 24 had undergone ORIF and seven had been treated non-operatively. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at 6, 12 and > 60 months using the Short Form-12, Oxford Knee Score and a patient satisfaction score.

Patients with instability or nonunion needed total knee arthroplasty earlier (14 and 13.3 months post-injury) than those with intra-articular malunion (50 months, p < 0.001). Primary cruciate-retaining implants were used in 27 (87%) patients. Complication rates were higher in the PTOA cohort and included wound complications (13% vs 1% p = 0.014) and persistent stiffness (10% vs 0%, p = 0.014). Two (6%) PTOA patients required revision total knee arthroplasty at 57 and 114 months. The mean Oxford knee score was worse pre-operatively in the cohort with primary osteoarthritis (18 vs 30, p < 0.001) but there were no significant differences in post-operative Oxford knee score or patient satisfaction (primary osteoarthritis 86%, PTOA 78%, p = 0.437).

Total knee arthroplasty undertaken after fracture of the tibial plateau has a higher rate of complications than that undertaken for primary osteoarthritis, but patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction are comparable.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:532–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 3 | Pages 299 - 305
1 Mar 2014
Bell KR Clement ND Jenkins PJ Keating JF

We performed a case–control study to compare the rates of further surgery, revision and complications, operating time and survival in patients who were treated with either an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Corail bipolar femoral stem or a cemented Exeter stem for a displaced intracapsular fracture of the hip. The mean age of the patients in the uncemented group was 82.5 years (53 to 97) and in the cemented group was 82.7 years (51 to 99) We used propensity score matching, adjusting for age, gender and the presence or absence of dementia and comorbidities, to produce a matched cohort receiving an Exeter stem (n = 69) with which to compare the outcome of patients receiving a Corail stem (n = 69). The Corail had a significantly lower all-cause rate of further surgery (p = 0.016; odds ratio (OR) 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.84) and number of hips undergoing major further surgery (p = 0.029; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.09). The mean operating time was significantly less for the Corail group than for the cemented Exeter group (59 min [12 to 136] vs 70 min [40 to 175], p = 0.001). The Corail group also had a lower risk of a peri-prosthetic fracture (p = 0.042; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.42) . There was no difference in the mortality rate between the groups. There were significantly fewer complications in the uncemented group, suggesting that the use of this stem would result in a decreased rate of morbidity in these frail patients. Whether this relates to an improved functional outcome remains unknown.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:299–305.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1071 - 1078
1 Aug 2011
Keating JF Will EM

A total of 80 patients with an acute rupture of tendo Achillis were randomised to operative repair using an open technique (39 patients) or non-operative treatment in a cast (41 patients). Patients were followed up for one year. Outcome measures included clinical complications, range of movement of the ankle, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA), and muscle function dynamometry evaluating dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle. The primary outcome measure was muscle dynamometry.

Re-rupture occurred in two of 37 patients (5%) in the operative group and four of 39 (10%) in the non-operative group, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.68). There was a slightly greater range of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle in the operative group at three months which was not statistically significant, but at four and six months the range of dorsiflexion was better in the non-operative group, although this did not reach statistically significance either. After 12 weeks the peak torque difference of plantar flexion compared with the normal side was less in the operative than the non-operative group (47% vs 61%, respectively, p < 0.005). The difference declined to 26% and 30% at 26 weeks and 20% and 25% at 52 weeks, respectively. The difference in dorsiflexion peak torque from the normal side was less than 10% by 26 weeks in both groups, with no significant differences. The mean SMFA scores were significantly better in the operative group than the non-operative group at three months (15 vs 20, respectively, p < 0.03). No significant differences were observed after this, and at one year the scores were similar in both groups.

We were unable to show a convincing functional benefit from surgery for patients with an acute rupture of the tendo Achillis compared with conservative treatment in plaster.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 7 | Pages 865 - 866
1 Jul 2011
Keating JF White TO

This brief annotation summarises the particular contributions made by the annual Edinburgh International Trauma Symposium in various areas of research into aspects of orthopaedic trauma and the management of acutely injured patients, during the 25 years since its establishment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 6 | Pages 811 - 816
1 Jun 2011
Duckworth AD Bennet SJ Aderinto J Keating JF

The aim of this study was to determine the comorbid risk factors for failure in young patients who undergo fixation of a displaced fracture of the femoral neck. We identified from a prospective database all such patients ≤ 60 years of age treated with reduction and internal fixation. The main outcome measures were union, failure of fixation, nonunion and the development of avascular necrosis.

There were 122 patients in the study. Union occurred in 83 patients (68%) at a mean follow-up of 58 months (18 to 155). Complications occurred in 39 patients (32%) at a mean of 11 months (0.5 to 39). The rate of nonunion was 7.4% (n = 9) and of avascular necrosis was 11.5% (n = 14). Failures were more common in patients over 40 years of age (p = 0.03). Univariate analysis identified that delay in time to fixation (> 24 hours), alcohol excess and pre-existing renal, liver or respiratory disease were all predictive of failure (all p < 0.05). Of these, alcohol excess, renal disease and respiratory disease were most predictive of failure on multivariate analysis.

Younger patients with fractures of the femoral neck should be carefully evaluated for comorbidities that increase the risk of failure after reduction and fixation. In patients with a history of alcohol abuse, renal or respiratory disease, arthroplasty should be considered as an alternative treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1678 - 1684
1 Dec 2010
Mitchell SE Keating JF Robinson CM

The results of the treatment of 31 open femoral fractures (29 patients) with significant bone loss in a single trauma unit were reviewed. A protocol of early soft-tissue and bony debridement was followed by skeletal stabilisation using a locked intramedullary nail or a dynamic condylar plate for diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures respectively. Soft-tissue closure was obtained within 48 hours then followed, if required, by elective bone grafting with or without exchange nailing.

The mean time to union was 51 weeks (20 to 156). The time to union and functional outcome were largely dependent upon the location and extent of the bone loss. It was achieved more rapidly in fractures with wedge defects than in those with segmental bone loss. Fractures with metaphyseal defects healed more rapidly than those of comparable size in the diaphysis. Complications were more common in fractures with greater bone loss, and included stiffness of the knee, malunion and limb-length discrepancy.

Based on our findings, we have produced an algorithm for the treatment of these injuries. We conclude that satisfactory results can be achieved in most femoral fractures with bone loss using initial debridement and skeletal stabilisation to maintain length, with further procedures as required.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 2 | Pages 249 - 252
1 Feb 2009
Fascia DTM Singanayagam A Keating JF

We have conducted a case-control study over a period of ten years comparing both deep infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and colonised cases with a control group.

Risk factors associated with deep infection were vascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, admission to a high-dependency or an intensive-care unit and open wounds. Those for colonisation were institutional care, vascular diseases and dementia. Older age was a risk factor for any MRSA infection. The length of hospital stay was dramatically increased by deep infection.

These risk factors are useful in identifying higher-risk patients who may be more susceptible to MRSA infection. A strategy of early identification and isolation may help to control its spread in trauma units.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 5 | Pages 638 - 642
1 May 2008
Aderinto J Keating JF

We reviewed 27 diabetic patients who sustained a tibial fracture treated with a reamed intramedullary nail and compared them with a control group who did not have diabetes. There were 23 closed fractures and four were open. Union was delayed until after six months in 12 of the 23 (52%) diabetic patients with closed fractures and ten of the 23 (43%) control patients (p = 0.768). In two patients with diabetes (9%), closed tibial fractures failed to unite and required exchange nailing, whereas all closed fractures in the control group healed without further surgery (p = 0.489). In both the diabetic and control groups with closed fractures two patients (9%) developed superficial infections. There were two (9%) deep infections in diabetic patients with closed fractures, but none in the control group (p = 0.489).

Overall, there was no significant difference in the rate of complications between the diabetic patients and the control group, but there was a tendency for more severe infections in patients with diabetes.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1051 - 1054
1 Aug 2007
Ohly NE Murray IR Keating JF

We reviewed 87 patients who underwent revision reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. The incidence of meniscal tears and degenerative change was assessed and related to the interval between failure of the primary graft and revision reconstruction. Patients were divided into two groups: early revision surgery within six months of graft failure, and delayed revision. Degenerative change was scored using the French Society of Arthroscopy system.

There was a significantly higher incidence of articular cartilage degeneration in the delayed group (Mann-Whitney U-test, 53.2% vs 24%, p < 0.01). No patient in the early group had advanced degenerative change, compared to 9.2% of patients in the delayed group. There was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.3) in the incidence of meniscal tears between the two groups.

We conclude that revision reconstruction should be carried out within six months of primary graft failure, in order to minimise the risk of degenerative change.