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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 94 - 100
5 Feb 2024
Mancino F Kayani B Gabr A Fontalis A Plastow R Haddad FS

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common and debilitating knee injuries in professional athletes with an incidence in females up to eight-times higher than their male counterparts. ACL injuries can be career-threatening and are associated with increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in future life. The increased risk of ACL injury in females has been attributed to various anatomical, developmental, neuromuscular, and hormonal factors. Anatomical and hormonal factors have been identified and investigated as significant contributors including osseous anatomy, ligament laxity, and hamstring muscular recruitment. Postural stability and impact absorption are associated with the stabilizing effort and stress on the ACL during sport activity, increasing the risk of noncontact pivot injury. Female patients have smaller diameter hamstring autografts than males, which may predispose to increased risk of re-rupture following ACL reconstruction and to an increased risk of chondral and meniscal injuries. The addition of an extra-articular tenodesis can reduce the risk of failure; therefore, it should routinely be considered in young elite athletes. Prevention programs target key aspects of training including plyometrics, strengthening, balance, endurance and stability, and neuromuscular training, reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes by up to 90%. Sex disparities in access to training facilities may also play an important role in the risk of ACL injuries between males and females. Similarly, football boots, pitches quality, and football size and weight should be considered and tailored around females’ characteristics. Finally, high levels of personal and sport-related stress have been shown to increase the risk of ACL injury which may be related to alterations in attention and coordination, together with increased muscular tension, and compromise the return to sport after ACL injury. Further investigations are still necessary to better understand and address the risk factors involved in ACL injuries in female athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2024;5(2):94–100.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 7 | Pages 833 - 843
1 Jul 2022
Kayani B Baawa-Ameyaw J Fontalis A Tahmassebi J Wardle N Middleton R Stephen A Hutchinson J Haddad FS

Aims

This study reports the ten-year wear rates, incidence of osteolysis, clinical outcomes, and complications of a multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing oxidized zirconium (OxZr) versus cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liners in total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Methods

Patients undergoing primary THA were recruited from four institutions and prospectively allocated to the following treatment groups: Group A, CoCr femoral head with XLPE liner; Group B, OxZr femoral head with XLPE liner; and Group C, OxZr femoral head with UHMWPE liner. All study patients and assessors recording outcomes were blinded to the treatment groups. The outcomes of 262 study patients were analyzed at ten years’ follow-up.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1642 - 1645
1 Nov 2021
Kayani B Giebaly D Haddad FS


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 10 | Pages 865 - 870
20 Oct 2021
Wignadasan W Mohamed A Kayani B Magan A Plastow R Haddad FS

Aims

The COVID-19 pandemic drastically affected elective orthopaedic services globally as routine orthopaedic activity was largely halted to combat this global threat. Our institution (University College London Hospital, UK) previously showed that during the first peak, a large proportion of patients were hesitant to be listed for their elective lower limb procedure. The aim of this study is to assess if there is a patient perception change towards having elective surgery now that we have passed the peak of the second wave of the pandemic.

Methods

This is a prospective study of 100 patients who were on the waiting list of a single surgeon for an elective hip or knee procedure. Baseline characteristics including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, COVID-19 risk, procedure type, and admission type were recorded. The primary outcome was patient consent to continue with their scheduled surgical procedure. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to define if any specific patient factors influenced decision to continue with surgery


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 6 | Pages 397 - 404
1 Jun 2021
Begum FA Kayani B Magan AA Chang JS Haddad FS

Limb alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) influences periarticular soft-tissue tension, biomechanics through knee flexion, and implant survival. Despite this, there is no uniform consensus on the optimal alignment technique for TKA. Neutral mechanical alignment facilitates knee flexion and symmetrical component wear but forces the limb into an unnatural position that alters native knee kinematics through the arc of knee flexion. Kinematic alignment aims to restore native limb alignment, but the safe ranges with this technique remain uncertain and the effects of this alignment technique on component survivorship remain unknown. Anatomical alignment aims to restore predisease limb alignment and knee geometry, but existing studies using this technique are based on cadaveric specimens or clinical trials with limited follow-up times. Functional alignment aims to restore the native plane and obliquity of the joint by manipulating implant positioning while limiting soft tissue releases, but the results of high-quality studies with long-term outcomes are still awaited. The drawbacks of existing studies on alignment include the use of surgical techniques with limited accuracy and reproducibility of achieving the planned alignment, poor correlation of intraoperative data to long-term functional outcomes and implant survivorship, and a paucity of studies on the safe ranges of limb alignment. Further studies on alignment in TKA should use surgical adjuncts (e.g. robotic technology) to help execute the planned alignment with improved accuracy, include intraoperative assessments of knee biomechanics and periarticular soft-tissue tension, and correlate alignment to long-term functional outcomes and survivorship.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 507 - 514
1 Mar 2021
Chang JS Kayani B Wallace C Haddad FS

Aims

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using functional alignment aims to implant the components with minimal compromise of the soft-tissue envelope by restoring the plane and obliquity of the non-arthritic joint. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TKA with functional alignment on mediolateral soft-tissue balance as assessed using intraoperative sensor-guided technology.

Methods

This prospective study included 30 consecutive patients undergoing robotic-assisted TKA using the Stryker PS Triathlon implant with functional alignment. Intraoperative soft-tissue balance was assessed using sensor-guided technology after definitive component implantation; soft-tissue balance was defined as intercompartmental pressure difference (ICPD) of < 15 psi. Medial and lateral compartment pressures were recorded at 10°, 45°, and 90° of knee flexion. This study included 18 females (60%) and 12 males (40%) with a mean age of 65.2 years (SD 9.3). Mean preoperative hip-knee-ankle deformity was 6.3° varus (SD 2.7°).


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 1 | Pages 48 - 57
19 Jan 2021
Asokan A Plastow R Kayani B Radhakrishnan GT Magan AA Haddad FS

Cementless knee arthroplasty has seen a recent resurgence in popularity due to conceptual advantages, including improved osseointegration providing biological fixation, increased surgical efficiency, and reduced systemic complications associated with cement impaction and wear from cement debris. Increasingly younger and higher demand patients are requiring knee arthroplasty, and as such, there is optimism cementless fixation may improve implant survivorship and functional outcomes.

Compared to cemented implants, the National Joint Registry (NJR) currently reports higher revision rates in cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but lower in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, recent studies are beginning to show excellent outcomes with cementless implants, particularly with UKA which has shown superior performance to cemented varieties. Cementless TKA has yet to show long-term benefit, and currently performs equivalently to cemented in short- to medium-term cohort studies. However, with novel concepts including 3D-printed coatings, robotic-assisted surgery, radiostereometric analysis, and kinematic or functional knee alignment principles, it is hoped they may help improve the outcomes of cementless TKA in the long-term. In addition, though cementless implant costs remain higher due to novel implant coatings, it is speculated cost-effectiveness can be achieved through greater surgical efficiency and potential reduction in revision costs. There is paucity of level one data on long-term outcomes between fixation methods and the cost-effectiveness of modern cementless knee arthroplasty.

This review explores recent literature on cementless knee arthroplasty, with regards to clinical outcomes, implant survivorship, complications, and cost-effectiveness; providing a concise update to assist clinicians on implant choice.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2(1):48–57.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 1 | Pages 113 - 122
1 Jan 2021
Kayani B Tahmassebi J Ayuob A Konan S Oussedik S Haddad FS

Aims

The primary aim of this study was to compare the postoperative systemic inflammatory response in conventional jig-based total knee arthroplasty (conventional TKA) versus robotic-arm assisted total knee arthroplasty (robotic TKA). Secondary aims were to compare the macroscopic soft tissue injury, femoral and tibial bone trauma, localized thermal response, and the accuracy of component positioning between the two treatment groups.

Methods

This prospective randomized controlled trial included 30 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee undergoing conventional TKA versus robotic TKA. Predefined serum markers of inflammation and localized knee temperature were collected preoperatively and postoperatively at six hours, day 1, day 2, day 7, and day 28 following TKA. Blinded observers used the Macroscopic Soft Tissue Injury (MASTI) classification system to grade intraoperative periarticular soft tissue injury and bone trauma. Plain radiographs were used to assess the accuracy of achieving the planned postioning of the components in both groups.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1281 - 1288
3 Oct 2020
Chang JS Kayani B Plastow R Singh S Magan A Haddad FS

Injuries to the hamstring muscle complex are common in athletes, accounting for between 12% and 26% of all injuries sustained during sporting activities. Acute hamstring injuries often occur during sports that involve repetitive kicking or high-speed sprinting, such as American football, soccer, rugby, and athletics. They are also common in watersports, including waterskiing and surfing. Hamstring injuries can be career-threatening in elite athletes and are associated with an estimated risk of recurrence in between 14% and 63% of patients. The variability in prognosis and treatment of the different injury patterns highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to classify injuries accurately and plan the appropriate management.

Low-grade hamstring injuries may be treated with nonoperative measures including pain relief, eccentric lengthening exercises, and a graduated return to sport-specific activities. Nonoperative management is associated with highly variable times for convalescence and return to a pre-injury level of sporting function. Nonoperative management of high-grade hamstring injuries is associated with poor return to baseline function, residual muscle weakness and a high-risk of recurrence. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, high-grade musculotendinous tears, and chronic injuries with persistent weakness or functional compromise require surgical repair to enable return to a pre-injury level of sporting function and minimize the risk of recurrent injury.

This article reviews the optimal diagnostic imaging methods and common classification systems used to guide the treatment of hamstring injuries. In addition, the indications and outcomes for both nonoperative and operative treatment are analyzed to provide an evidence-based management framework for these patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1281–1288.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1279 - 1280
1 Oct 2020
Kayani B Onochie E Patil V Begum F Cuthbert R Ferguson D Bhamra J Sharma A Bates P Haddad FS


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1136 - 1145
14 Sep 2020
Kayani B Onochie E Patil V Begum F Cuthbert R Ferguson D Bhamra JS Sharma A Bates P Haddad FS

Aims

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many patients continue to require urgent surgery for hip fractures. However, the impact of COVID-19 on perioperative outcomes in these high-risk patients remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to establish the effects of COVID-19 on perioperative morbidity and mortality, and determine any risk factors for increased mortality in patients with COVID-19 undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Methods

This multicentre cohort study included 340 COVID-19-negative patients versus 82 COVID-19-positive patients undergoing surgical treatment for hip fractures across nine NHS hospitals in Greater London, UK. Patients in both treatment groups were comparable for age, sex, body mass index, fracture configuration, and type of surgery performed. Predefined perioperative outcomes were recorded within a 30-day postoperative period. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify risk factors associated with increased risk of mortality.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 9 | Pages 562 - 567
14 Sep 2020
Chang JS Wignadasan W Pradhan R Kontoghiorghe C Kayani B Haddad FS

Aims

The safe resumption of elective orthopaedic surgery following the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant challenge. A number of institutions have developed a COVID-free pathway for elective surgery patients in order to minimize the risk of viral transmission. The aim of this study is to identify the perioperative viral transmission rate in elective orthopaedic patients following the restart of elective surgery.

Methods

This is a prospective study of 121 patients who underwent elective orthopaedic procedures through a COVID-free pathway. All patients underwent a 14-day period of self-isolation, had a negative COVID-19 test within 72 hours of surgery, and underwent surgery at a COVID-free site. Baseline patient characteristics were recorded including age, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, body mass index (BMI), procedure, and admission type. Patients were contacted 14 days following discharge to determine if they had had a positive COVID-19 test (COVID-confirmed) or developed symptoms consistent with COVID-19 (COVID-19-presumed).


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 7 | Pages 420 - 423
15 Jul 2020
Wallace CN Kontoghiorghe C Kayani B Chang JS Haddad FS

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has had a significant impact on trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) departments worldwide. To manage the peak of the epidemic, orthopaedic staff were redeployed to frontline medical care; these roles included managing minor injury units, forming a “proning” team, and assisting in the intensive care unit (ICU). In addition, outpatient clinics were restructured to facilitate virtual consultations, elective procedures were cancelled, and inpatient hospital admissions minimized to reduce nosocomial COVID-19 infections. Urgent operations for fractures, infection and tumours went ahead but required strict planning to ensure patient safety. Orthopaedic training has also been significantly impacted during this period. This article discusses the impact of COVID-19 on T&O in the UK and highlights key lessons learned that may help to proactively prepare for the next global pandemic.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-7:420–423.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 6 | Pages 267 - 271
12 Jun 2020
Chang J Wignadasan W Kontoghiorghe C Kayani B Singh S Plastow R Magan A Haddad F

Aims

As the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic passes, the challenge shifts to safe resumption of routine medical services, including elective orthopaedic surgery. Protocols including pre-operative self-isolation, COVID-19 testing, and surgery at a non-COVID-19 site have been developed to minimize risk of transmission. Despite this, it is likely that many patients will want to delay surgery for fear of contracting COVID-19. The aim of this study is to identify the number of patients who still want to proceed with planned elective orthopaedic surgery in this current environment.

Methods

This is a prospective, single surgeon study of 102 patients who were on the waiting list for an elective hip or knee procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Baseline characteristics including age, ASA grade, COVID-19 risk, procedure type, surgical priority, and admission type were recorded. The primary outcome was patient consent to continue with planned surgical care after resumption of elective orthopaedic services. Subgroup analysis was also performed to determine if any specific patient factors influenced the decision to proceed with surgery.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 4 | Pages 442 - 448
1 Apr 2020
Kayani B Konan S Ahmed SS Chang JS Ayuob A Haddad FS

Aims

The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) resection on flexion-extension gaps, mediolateral soft tissue laxity, maximum knee extension, and limb alignment during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods

This prospective study included 140 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis undergoing primary robotic-arm assisted TKA. All operative procedures were performed by a single surgeon using a standard medial parapatellar approach. Optical motion capture technology with fixed femoral and tibial registration pins was used to assess study outcomes pre- and post-ACL resection with knee extension and 90° knee flexion. This study included 76 males (54.3%) and 64 females (45.7%) with a mean age of 64.1 years (SD 6.8) at time of surgery. Mean preoperative hip-knee-ankle deformity was 6.1° varus (SD 4.6° varus).


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 1 | Pages 66 - 71
27 Jan 2020
Moriarty P Kayani B Wallace C Chang J Plastow R Haddad FS

Aims

Graft infection following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may lead to septic arthritis requiring multiple irrigation and debridement procedures, staged revision operations, and prolonged courses of antibiotics. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies reporting on how gentamicin pre-soaking of hamstring grafts influences infection rates following ACLR. We set out to examine this in our study accordingly.

Methods

This retrospective study included 2,000 patients (1,156 males and 844 females) who underwent primary ACLR with hamstring autografts between 2007 to 2017. This included 1,063 patients who received pre-soaked saline hamstring grafts for ACLR followed by 937 patients who received pre-soaked gentamicin hamstring grafts for ACLR. All operative procedures were completed by a single surgeon using a standardized surgical technique. Medical notes were reviewed and data relating to the following outcomes recorded: postoperative infection, clinical progress, causative organisms, management received, and outcomes.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1230 - 1237
1 Oct 2019
Kayani B Konan S Horriat S Ibrahim MS Haddad FS

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) resection on flexion-extension gaps, mediolateral soft-tissue laxity, fixed flexion deformity (FFD), and limb alignment during posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Patients and Methods

This prospective study included 110 patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee undergoing primary robot-assisted PS TKA. All operations were performed by a single surgeon using a standard medial parapatellar approach. Optical motion capture technology with fixed femoral and tibial registration pins was used to assess gaps before and after PCL resection in extension and 90° knee flexion. Measurements were made after excision of the anterior cruciate ligament and prior to bone resection. There were 54 men (49.1%) and 56 women (50.9%) with a mean age of 68 years (sd 6.2) at the time of surgery. The mean preoperative hip-knee-ankle deformity was 4.1° varus (sd 3.4).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 10 | Pages 438 - 442
1 Oct 2019
Kayani B Haddad FS


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 6_Supple_B | Pages 110 - 115
1 Jun 2019
Khan N Parmar D Ibrahim MS Kayani B Haddad FS

Aims

The increasing infection burden after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has seen a rise in the use of two-stage exchange arthroplasty and the use of increasingly powerful antibiotics at the time of this procedure. As a result, there has been an increase in the number of failed two-stage revisions during the past decade. The aim of this study was to clarify the outcome of repeat two-stage revision THA following a failed two-stage exchange due to recurrent prosthetic joint infection (PJI).

Patients and Methods

We identified 42 patients who underwent a two-stage revision THA having already undergone at least one previous two stage procedure for infection, between 2000 and 2015. There were 23 women and 19 men. Their mean age was 69.3 years (48 to 81). The outcome was analyzed at a minimum follow-up of two years.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 8, Issue 6 | Pages 228 - 231
1 Jun 2019
Kayani B Haddad FS