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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 4 | Pages 260 - 268
1 Apr 2024
Broekhuis D Meurs WMH Kaptein BL Karunaratne S Carey Smith RL Sommerville S Boyle R Nelissen RGHH


Custom triflange acetabular components (CTACs) play an important role in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery, particularly in revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) and pelvic tumour resection procedures. Accurate CTAC positioning is essential to successful surgical outcomes. While prior studies have explored CTAC positioning in rTHA, research focusing on tumour cases and implant flange positioning precision remains limited. Additionally, the impact of intraoperative navigation on positioning accuracy warrants further investigation. This study assesses CTAC positioning accuracy in tumour resection and rTHA cases, focusing on the differences between preoperative planning and postoperative implant positions.


A multicentre observational cohort study in Australia between February 2017 and March 2021 included consecutive patients undergoing acetabular reconstruction with CTACs in rTHA (Paprosky 3A/3B defects) or tumour resection (including Enneking P2 peri-acetabular area). Of 103 eligible patients (104 hips), 34 patients (35 hips) were analyzed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 136 - 143
1 Feb 2024
van der Lelij TJN Marang-van de Mheen PJ Kaptein BL Koster LA Ljung P Nelissen RGHH Toksvig-Larsen S


The objective of this study was to compare the two-year migration and clinical outcomes of a new cementless hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium acetabular shell with its previous version, which shared the same geometrical design but a different manufacturing process for applying the titanium surface.


Overall, 87 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomized to either a Trident II HA or Trident HA shell, each cementless with clusterholes and HA-coating. All components were used in combination with a cemented Exeter V40 femoral stem. Implant migration was measured using radiostereometric analysis (RSA), with radiographs taken within two days of surgery (baseline), and at three, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Proximal acetabular component migration was the primary outcome measure. Clinical scores and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected at each follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1168 - 1176
1 Nov 2023
Yüksel Y Koster LA Kaptein BL Nelissen RGHH den Hollander P


Conflicting clinical results are reported for the ATTUNE Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated five-year follow-up results comparing cemented ATTUNE and PFC-Sigma cruciate retaining TKAs, analyzing component migration as measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), clinical outcomes, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and radiological outcomes.


A total of 74 primary TKAs were included in this single-blind RCT. RSA examinations were performed, and PROMs and clinical outcomes were collected immediate postoperatively, and at three, six, 12, 24, and 60 months’ follow-up. Radiolucent lines (RLLs) were measured in standard anteroposterior radiographs at six weeks, and 12 and 60 months postoperatively.


The primary objective of this study was to compare the five-year tibial component migration and wear between highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) inserts and conventional polyethylene (PE) inserts of the uncemented Triathlon fixed insert cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondary objectives included clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).


A double-blinded, randomized study was conducted including 96 TKAs. Tibial component migration and insert wear were measured with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at three, six, 12, 24, and 60 months postoperatively. PROMS were collected preoperatively and at all follow-up timepoints.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 148 - 157
1 Feb 2023
Koster LA Rassir R Kaptein BL Sierevelt IN Schager M Nelissen RGHH Nolte PA


The primary aim of this study was to compare the migration of the femoral and tibial components of the cementless rotating platform Attune and Low Contact Stress (LCS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) designs, two years postoperatively, using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in order to assess the risk of the development of aseptic loosening. A secondary aim was to compare clinical and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) between the designs.


A total of 61 TKAs were analyzed in this randomized clinical RSA trial. RSA examinations were performed one day and three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. The maximal total point motion (MPTM), translations, and rotations of the components were analyzed. PROMs and clinical data were collected preoperatively and at six weeks and three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Linear mixed effect modelling was used for statistical analyses.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 1 | Pages 35 - 46
1 Jan 2023
Mills K Wymenga AB Bénard MR Kaptein BL Defoort KC van Hellemondt GG Heesterbeek PJC


The aim of this study was to compare a bicruciate-retaining (BCR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA design in terms of kinematics, measured using fluoroscopy and stability as micromotion using radiostereometric analysis (RSA).


A total of 40 patients with end-stage osteoarthritis were included in this randomized controlled trial. All patients performed a step-up and lunge task in front of a monoplane fluoroscope one year postoperatively. Femorotibial contact point (CP) locations were determined at every flexion angle and compared between the groups. RSA images were taken at baseline, six weeks, three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Clinical and functional outcomes were compared postoperatively for two years.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 855 - 863
1 May 2021
Koster LA Meinardi JE Kaptein BL Van der Linden - Van der Zwaag E Nelissen RGHH


The objective of this study was to compare the two-year migration pattern and clinical outcomes of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with an asymmetrical tibial design (Persona PS) and a well-proven TKA with a symmetrical tibial design (NexGen LPS).


A randomized controlled radiostereometric analysis (RSA) trial was conducted including 75 cemented posterior-stabilized TKAs. Implant migration was measured with RSA. Maximum total point motion (MTPM), translations, rotations, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were assessed at one week postoperatively and at three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1158 - 1166
14 Sep 2020
Kaptein BL den Hollander P Thomassen B Fiocco M Nelissen RGHH


The primary objective of this study was to compare migration of the cemented ATTUNE fixed bearing cruciate retaining tibial component with the cemented Press-Fit Condylar (PFC)-sigma fixed bearing cruciate retaining tibial component. The secondary objectives included comparing clinical and radiological outcomes and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs).


A single blinded randomized, non-inferiority study was conducted including 74 patients. Radiostereometry examinations were made after weight bearing, but before hospital discharge, and at three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. PROMS were collected preoperatively and at three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Radiographs for measuring radiolucencies were collected at two weeks and two years postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1016 - 1024
1 Aug 2020
Hasan S van Hamersveld KT Marang-van de Mheen PJ Kaptein BL Nelissen RGHH Toksvig-Larsen S


Although bone cement is the primary mode of fixation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), cementless fixation is gaining interest as it has the potential of achieving lasting biological fixation. By 3D printing an implant, highly porous structures can be manufactured, promoting osseointegration into the implant to prevent aseptic loosening. This study compares the migration of cementless, 3D-printed TKA to cemented TKA of a similar design up to two years of follow-up using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) known for its ability to predict aseptic loosening.


A total of 72 patients were randomized to either cementless 3D-printed or a cemented cruciate retaining TKA. RSA and clinical scores were evaluated at baseline and postoperatively at three, 12, and 24 months. A mixed model was used to analyze the repeated measurements.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 6 | Pages 376 - 384
1 Jun 2017
Stentz-Olesen K Nielsen ET De Raedt S Jørgensen PB Sørensen OG Kaptein BL Andersen MS Stilling M


Static radiostereometric analysis (RSA) using implanted markers is considered the most accurate system for the evaluation of prosthesis migration. By using CT bone models instead of markers, combined with a dynamic RSA system, a non-invasive measurement of joint movement is enabled. This method is more accurate than current 3D skin marker-based tracking systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CT model method for measuring knee joint kinematics in static and dynamic RSA using the marker method as the benchmark.


Bone models were created from CT scans, and tantalum beads were implanted into the tibia and femur of eight human cadaver knees. Each specimen was secured in a fixture, static and dynamic stereoradiographs were recorded, and the bone models and marker models were fitted to the stereoradiographs.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1333 - 1341
1 Oct 2016
van der Voort P Valstar ER Kaptein BL Fiocco M van der Heide HJL Nelissen RGHH


The widely used and well-proven Palacos R (a.k.a. Refobacin Palacos R) bone cement is no longer commercially available and was superseded by Refobacin bone cement R and Palacos R + G in 2005. However, the performance of these newly introduced bone cements have not been tested in a phased evidence-based manner, including roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

Patients and Methods

In this blinded, randomised, clinical RSA study, the migration of the Stanmore femoral component was compared between Refobacin bone cement R and Palacos R + G in 62 consecutive total hip arthroplasties. The primary outcome measure was femoral component migration measured using RSA and secondary outcomes were Harris hip score (HHS), Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and Short Form 36 (SF-36).

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 8 | Pages 320 - 327
1 Aug 2016
van IJsseldijk EA Valstar ER Stoel BC Nelissen RGHH Baka N van’t Klooster R Kaptein BL


An important measure for the diagnosis and monitoring of knee osteoarthritis is the minimum joint space width (mJSW). This requires accurate alignment of the x-ray beam with the tibial plateau, which may not be accomplished in practice. We investigate the feasibility of a new mJSW measurement method from stereo radiographs using 3D statistical shape models (SSM) and evaluate its sensitivity to changes in the mJSW and its robustness to variations in patient positioning and bone geometry.

Materials and Methods

A validation study was performed using five cadaver specimens. The actual mJSW was varied and images were acquired with variation in the cadaver positioning. For comparison purposes, the mJSW was also assessed from plain radiographs. To study the influence of SSM model accuracy, the 3D mJSW measurement was repeated with models from the actual bones, obtained from CT scans.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 3 | Pages 391 - 397
1 Mar 2015
van Embden D Stollenwerck GANL Koster LA Kaptein BL Nelissen RGHH Schipper IB

The aim of this study was to quantify the stability of fracture-implant complex in fractures after fixation. A total of 15 patients with an undisplaced fracture of the femoral neck, treated with either a dynamic hip screw or three cannulated hip screws, and 16 patients with an AO31-A2 trochanteric fracture treated with a dynamic hip screw or a Gamma Nail, were included. Radiostereometric analysis was used at six weeks, four months and 12 months post-operatively to evaluate shortening and rotation.

Migration could be assessed in ten patients with a fracture of the femoral neck and seven with a trochanteric fracture. By four months post-operatively, a mean shortening of 5.4 mm (-0.04 to 16.1) had occurred in the fracture of the femoral neck group and 5.0 mm (-0.13 to 12.9) in the trochanteric fracture group. A wide range of rotation occurred in both types of fracture. Right-sided trochanteric fractures seem more rotationally stable than left-sided fractures.

This prospective study shows that migration at the fracture site occurs continuously during the first four post-operative months, after which stabilisation occurs. This information may allow the early recognition of patients at risk of failure of fixation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:391–7.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 185 - 191
1 Feb 2015
Kendrick BJL Kaptein BL Valstar ER Gill HS Jackson WFM Dodd CAF Price AJ Murray DW

The most common reasons for revision of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) are loosening and pain. Cementless components may reduce the revision rate. The aim of this study was to compare the fixation and clinical outcome of cementless and cemented Oxford UKAs.

A total of 43 patients were randomised to receive either a cemented or a cementless Oxford UKA and were followed for two years with radiostereometric analysis (RSA), radiographs aligned with the bone–implant interfaces and clinical scores.

The femoral components migrated significantly during the first year (mean 0.2 mm) but not during the second. There was no significant difference in the extent of migration between cemented and cementless femoral components in either the first or the second year. In the first year the cementless tibial components subsided significantly more than the cemented components (mean 0.28 mm (sd 0.17) vs. 0.09 mm (sd 0.19 mm)). In the second year, although there was a small amount of subsidence (mean 0.05 mm) there was no significant difference (p = 0.92) between cemented and cementless tibial components. There were no femoral radiolucencies. Tibial radiolucencies were narrow (< 1 mm) and were significantly (p = 0.02) less common with cementless (6 of 21) than cemented (13 of 21) components at two years. There were no complete radiolucencies with cementless components, whereas five of 21 (24%) cemented components had complete radiolucencies. The clinical scores at two years were not significantly different (p = 0.20).

As second-year migration is predictive of subsequent loosening, and as radiolucency is suggestive of reduced implant–bone contact, these data suggest that fixation of the cementless components is at least as good as, if not better than, that of cemented devices.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:185–91.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 3, Issue 10 | Pages 289 - 296
1 Oct 2014
van IJsseldijk EA Harman MK Luetzner J Valstar ER Stoel BC Nelissen RGHH Kaptein BL


Wear of polyethylene inserts plays an important role in failure of total knee replacement and can be monitored in vivo by measuring the minimum joint space width in anteroposterior radiographs. The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy and precision of a new model-based method with the conventional method by analysing the difference between the minimum joint space width measurements and the actual thickness of retrieved polyethylene tibial inserts.


Before revision, the minimum joint space width values and their locations on the insert were measured in 15 fully weight-bearing radiographs. These measurements were compared with the actual minimum thickness values and locations of the retrieved tibial inserts after revision.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1366 - 1371
1 Oct 2012
Pijls BG Valstar ER Kaptein BL Nelissen RGHH

This single-blinded randomised controlled trial investigated whether one design of mobile-bearing (MB) total knee replacement (TKR) has any advantage over a fixed-bearing (FB) design on long-term fixation as measured by radiostereometry. The amount of wear underneath the mobile bearing was also evaluated. A series of 42 knees was randomised to MB or FB tibial components with appropriate polyethylene inserts and followed for between ten and 12 years, or until the death of the patient. The polyethylene in the MB group was superior in that it was gamma-irradiated in inert gas and was calcium-stearate free; the polyethylene in the FB group was gamma-irradiated in air and contained calcium stearate. In theory this should be advantageous to the wear rate of the MB group. At final follow-up the overall mean migration was 0.75 mm (sd 0.76) in the MB group and 0.66 mm (sd 0.4) in the FB group, with the FB group demonstrating more posterior tilt and the MB group more internal rotation. In the FB group there was one revision for aseptic loosening, but none in the MB group. There were no significant differences in clinical or radiological scores.

For the MB group, the mean linear wear rate on the under-surface was 0.026 mm/year (sd 0.014). This was significantly smaller than the wear rate of 0.11 mm/year (sd 0.06) in the MB between femur and polyethylene (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, even in a best-case setting the mobile bearings of this TKR design had no apparent advantage in terms of fixation over the FB knee prosthesis at ten to 12 years. The wear underneath the mobile bearing was small and is unlikely to be clinically relevant.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 470 - 475
1 Apr 2011
Kendrick BJL Simpson DJ Kaptein BL Valstar ER Gill HS Murray DW Price AJ

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) was designed to minimise wear utilising a fully-congruent, mobile, polyethylene bearing. Wear of polyethylene is a significant cause of revision surgery in UKR in the first decade, and the incidence increases in the second decade. Our study used model-based radiostereometric analysis to measure the combined wear of the upper and lower bearing surfaces in 13 medial-compartment Oxford UKRs at a mean of 20.9 years (17.2 to 25.9) post-operatively.

The mean linear penetration of the polyethylene bearing was 1.04 mm (0.307 to 2.15), with a mean annual wear rate of 0.045 mm/year (0.016 to 0.099). The annual wear rate of the phase-2 bearings (mean 0.022 mm/year) was significantly less (p = 0.01) than that of phase-1 bearings (mean 0.07 mm/year).

The linear wear rate of the Oxford UKR remains very low into the third decade. We believe that phase-2 bearings had lower wear rates than phase-1 implants because of the improved bearing design and surgical technique which decreased the incidence of impingement. We conclude that the design of the Oxford UKR gives low rates of wear in the long term.