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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 7 | Pages 941 - 949
1 Jul 2020
Price AJ Kang S Cook JA Dakin H Blom A Arden N Fitzpatrick R Beard DJ


To calculate how the likelihood of obtaining measurable benefit from hip or knee arthroplasty varies with preoperative patient-reported scores.


Existing UK data from 222,933 knee and 209,760 hip arthroplasty patients were used to model an individual’s probability of gaining meaningful improvement after surgery based on their preoperative Oxford Knee or Hip Score (OKS/OHS). A clinically meaningful improvement after arthroplasty was defined as ≥ 8 point improvement in OHS, and ≥ 7 in OKS.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 3 | Pages 401 - 408
1 Mar 2017
Kang S Lee JS Park J Park S


Children treated for osteosarcoma around the knee often have a substantial leg-length discrepancy at skeletal maturity. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of staged skeletal reconstruction after a leg lengthening procedure using an external fixator in these patients.

Patients and Methods

We reviewed 11 patients who underwent staged reconstruction with either an arthroplasty (n = 6) or an arthrodesis (n = 5). A control group of 11 patients who had undergone wide excision and concurrent reconstruction with an arthroplasty were matched for gender, location, and size of tumour. We investigated the change in leg-length discrepancy, function as assessed by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Scale (MSTS) score and complications.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1270 - 1275
1 Sep 2016
Park S Kang S Kim JY


Our aim was to investigate the predictive factors for the development of a rebound phenomenon after temporary hemiepiphysiodesis in children with genu valgum.

Patients and Methods

We studied 37 limbs with idiopathic genu valgum who were treated with hemiepiphyseal stapling, and with more than six months remaining growth at removal of the staples. All children were followed until skeletal maturity or for more than two years after removal of the staples.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 134 - 140
1 Jan 2015
Kang S Kam M Miraj F Park S

A small proportion of children with Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF) experience troubling limited or delayed recovery after operative treatment. We hypothesised that the fracture level relative to the isthmus of the humerus would affect the outcome.

We retrospectively reviewed 230 children who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) for their Gartland type III SCHFs between March 2003 and December 2012. There were 144 boys and 86 girls, with the mean age of six years (1.1 to 15.2). The clinico-radiological characteristics and surgical outcomes (recovery of the elbow range of movement, post-operative angulation, and the final Flynn grade) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was employed to identify prognostic factors that influenced outcome, including fracture level. Multivariate analysis revealed that a fracture below the humeral isthmus was significantly associated with poor prognosis in terms of the range of elbow movement (p < 0.001), angulation (p = 0.001) and Flynn grade (p = 0.003). Age over ten years was also a poor prognostic factor for recovery of the range of elbow movement (p = 0.027).

This is the first study demonstrating a subclassification system of Gartland III fractures with prognostic significance. This will guide surgeons in peri-operative planning and counselling as well as directing future research aimed at improving outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:134–40.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 121 - 128
1 Jan 2015
Kang S Han I Hong SH Cho HS Kim W Kim H

Cancellous allograft bone chips are commonly used in the reconstruction of defects in bone after removal of benign tumours. We investigated the MRI features of grafted bone chips and their change over time, and compared them with those with recurrent tumour. We retrospectively reviewed 66 post-operative MRIs from 34 patients who had undergone curettage and grafting with cancellous bone chips to fill the defect after excision of a tumour. All grafts showed consistent features at least six months after grafting: homogeneous intermediate or low signal intensities with or without scattered hyperintense foci (speckled hyperintensities) on T1 images; high signal intensities with scattered hypointense foci (speckled hypointensities) on T2 images, and peripheral rim enhancement with or without central heterogeneous enhancements on enhanced images. Incorporation of the graft occurred from the periphery to the centre, and was completed within three years. Recurrent lesions consistently showed the same signal intensities as those of pre-operative MRIs of the primary lesions. There were four misdiagnoses, three of which were chondroid tumours.

We identified typical MRI features and clarified the incorporation process of grafted cancellous allograft bone chips. The most important characteristics of recurrent tumours were that they showed the same signal intensities as the primary tumours. It might sometimes be difficult to differentiate grafted cancellous allograft bone chips from a recurrent chondroid tumour.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:121–8.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1197 - 1200
1 Sep 2013
Zhaoning X Xu Y Shaoqi T Baiqiang H Kang S

A total of 187 patients with primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) were randomly divided into two groups, one of which underwent synovectomy. The patients and assessors were blinded to the randomisation both before and after surgery. The duration of surgery, hospitalisation period, concealed bleeding, drainage volume, blood transfusion rate and range of movement of the knee at three days after the operation were analysed. Patients were followed up at four weeks and 12 months after their operation, and a visual analogue score (VAS) for pain, Knee Society score (KSS) and a patellar ballottement test were compared between the groups.

The mean amount of concealed bleeding was higher in the synovectomy group compared with the control group (1.24 l (0.08 to 3.28) vs 1.03 l (0.16 to 2.94); p = 0.042), as was the mean drainage volume (0.90 l (0.35 to 1.81) vs 0.81 (0.25 to 1.65); p = 0.030). The mean operating time was also higher in the synovectomy group compared with the controls (1.50 hours (1.34 to 1.75) vs 1.41 hours (1.21 to 1.79); p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in blood transfusion rate (p = 0.882), hospital stay (p = 0.805) or range of movement of the knee (p = 0.413) between the two groups. At four weeks and 12 months post-operatively there were no statistically significant differences in any of the measured parameters. We concluded that synovectomy confers no clinical advantages in TKR for primary OA while subjecting patients to higher levels of bleeding and longer operating times.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1197–200.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 4 | Pages 476 - 478
1 Apr 2011
Kang S Smith TO De Rover WBS Walton NP

There has been debate about the role of unicompartmental knee replacement in the presence of radiologically identifiable degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint. We studied 195 knees in 163 patients in whom an Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement had been performed for medial osteoarthritis between January 2004 and July 2007. The mean age of the patients was 66 years (51 to 93). The degree of degenerative change of the patellofemoral joint was assessed using Jones’ criteria. Functional outcome was assessed at a mean of 3.4 years (2 to 7) post-operatively, using the Oxford knee score and the Short-form 12 score.

Degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint were seen pre-operatively in 125 knees (64%) on the skyline radiographs. There was no statistically significant difference in the Oxford knee or Short-form 12 scores between those patients who had patellofemoral osteoarthritis pre-operatively and those who did not (p = 0.22 and 0.54, respectively).

These results support the opinion expressed at the designer’s hospital that degenerative changes of the patellofemoral joint in isolation should not be considered to be a contraindication to medial Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 2 | Pages 262 - 265
1 Feb 2011
Kang S Mangwani J Ramachandran M Paterson JMH Barry M

We present the results of 90 consecutive children with displaced fractures of the forearm treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a mean follow-up of 6.6 months (2.0 to 17.6). Eight (9%) had open fractures and 77 (86%) had sustained a fracture of both bones. The operations were performed by orthopaedic trainees in 78 patients (86%). All fractures healed at a mean of 2.9 months (1.1 to 8.7). There was one case of delayed union of an ulnar fracture. An excellent or good functional outcome was achieved in 76 patients (84%). There was no statistical difference detected when the grade of operating surgeon, age of the patient and the diaphyseal level of the fracture were correlated with the outcome. A limited open reduction was required in 40 fractures (44%).

Complications included seven cases of problematic wounds, two transient palsies of the superficial radial nerve and one case each of malunion and a post-operative compartment syndrome. At final follow-up, all children were pain-free and without limitation of sport and play activities.

Our findings indicate that the functional outcome following paediatric fractures of the forearm treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing is good, without the need for anatomical restoration of the radial bow.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1127 - 1133
1 Sep 2009
Kang S Sanghera T Mangwani J Paterson JMH Ramachandran M

We performed a systematic review of the optimal management of septic arthritis in children as recommended in the current English literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and reference lists of retrieved articles without date restrictions up to 31 January 2009. From 2236 citations, 227 relevant full-text articles were screened in detail; 154 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, from which conclusions were drawn on the management of infected joints in children.

Our review showed that no single investigation, including joint aspiration, is sufficiently reliable to diagnose conclusively joint infection. The roles of aspiration, arthrotomy and arthroscopy in treatment are not clear cut, and the ideal duration of antibiotic therapy is not yet fully defined. These issues are discussed. Further large-scale, multi-centre studies are needed to delineate the optimal management of paediatric septic arthritis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1457 - 1461
1 Nov 2007
Han HS Kang S Yoon KS

We have examined the results obtained with 72 NexGen legacy posterior stabilised-flex fixed total knee replacements in 47 patients implanted by a single surgeon between March 2003 and September 2004.

Aseptic loosening of the femoral component was found in 27 (38%) of the replacements at a mean follow-up of 32 months (30 to 48) and 15 knees (21%) required revision at a mean of 23 months (11 to 45). We compared the radiologically-loose and revised knees with those which had remained well-fixed to identify the factors which had contributed to this high rate of aseptic loosening.

Post-operatively, the mean maximum flexion was 136° (110° to 140°) in the loosened group and 125° (95° to 140°) in the well-fixed group (independent t-test, p = 0.022). Squatting, kneeling, or sitting cross-legged could be achieved by 23 (85%) of the loosened knees, but only 22 (49%) of the well-fixed knees (chi-squared test, p = 0.001). The loosened femoral components were found to migrate into a more flexed position, but no migration was detected in the well-fixed group.

These implants allowed a high degree of flexion, but showed a marked rate of early loosening of the femoral component, which was associated with weight-bearing in maximum flexion.