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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 6 | Pages 848 - 855
1 Jun 2012
Tayton ER Smith JO Aarvold A Kalra S Dunlop DG Oreffo ROC

When transferring tissue regenerative strategies involving skeletal stem cells to human application, consideration needs to be given to factors that may affect the function of the cells that are transferred. Local anaesthetics are frequently used during surgical procedures, either administered directly into the operative site or infiltrated subcutaneously around the wound. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of commonly used local anaesthetics on the morphology, function and survival of human adult skeletal stem cells.

Cells from three patients who were undergoing elective hip replacement were harvested and incubated for two hours with 1% lidocaine, 0.5% levobupivacaine or 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride solutions. Viability was quantified using WST-1 and DNA assays. Viability and morphology were further characterised using CellTracker Green/Ethidium Homodimer-1 immunocytochemistry and function was assessed by an alkaline phosphatase assay. An additional group was cultured for a further seven days to allow potential recovery of the cells after removal of the local anaesthetic.

A statistically significant and dose dependent reduction in cell viability and number was observed in the cell cultures exposed to all three local anaesthetics at concentrations of 25% and 50%, and this was maintained even following culture for a further seven days.

This study indicates that certain local anaesthetic agents in widespread clinical use are deleterious to skeletal progenitor cells when studied in vitro; this might have relevance in clinical applications.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 6 | Pages 777 - 781
1 Jun 2011
Kalra S Smith TO Berko B Walton NP

The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement gives good results in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the medial compartment. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) does not reflect a poor outcome in such patients. However, the reliability and validity of this assessment have not been determined. Our aim was to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability and the sensitivity and specificity of the assessment of RLLs around both tibial and femoral components using standard radiographs.

Two reviewers assessed the radiographs of 45 patients who had loosening of the tibial or femoral component confirmed at revision surgery and compared them with those of a series of 45 asymptomatic patients matched for age and gender.

The results suggested that, using standard radiographs, tibial RLLs were 63.6% sensitive and 94.4% specific and femoral RLLs 63.9% sensitive and 72.7% specific for loosening. Overall intra- and interobserver reliability was highly variable, but zonal analysis showed that lucency at the tip of the femoral peg was significantly associated with loosening of the femoral component.

Fluoroscopically guided radiographs may improve the zonal reliability of the assessment of RLLs, but further independent and comparative studies are required. In the meantime, the innocence of the physiological RLLs detected by standard radiographs should be viewed with caution.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 6 | Pages 808 - 813
1 Jun 2007
Kalra S Grimer RJ Spooner D Carter SR Tillman RM Abudu A

We identified 42 patients who presented to our unit over a 27-year period with a secondary radiation-induced sarcoma of bone. We reviewed patient, tumour and treatment factors to identify those that affected outcome. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 45.6 years (10 to 84) and the mean latent interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the sarcoma was 17 years (4 to 50). The median dose of radiotherapy given was estimated at 50 Gy (mean 49; 20 to 66). There was no correlation between radiation dose and the time to development of a sarcoma. The pelvis was the most commonly affected site (14 patients (33%)). Breast cancer was the most common primary tumour (eight patients; 19%). Metastases were present at diagnosis of the sarcoma in nine patients (21.4%). Osteosarcoma was the most common diagnosis and occurred in 30 cases (71.4%). Treatment was by surgery and chemotherapy when indicated: 30 patients (71.4%) were treated with the intention to cure. The survival rate was 41% at five years for those treated with the intention to cure but in those treated palliatively the mean survival was only 8.8 months (2 to 22), and all had died by two years. The only factor found to be significant for survival was the ability to completely resect the tumour. Limb sarcomas had a better prognosis (66% survival at five years) than central ones (12% survival at five years) (p = 0.009).

Radiation-induced sarcoma is a rare complication of radiotherapy. Both surgical and oncological treatment is likely to be compromised by the treatment received previously by the patient.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 88-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1299 - 1302
1 Oct 2006
Tillman R Kalra S Grimer R Carter S Abudu A

Peri- and sub-prosthetic fractures, or pathological fractures below an existing well-fixed femoral component, with or without an ipsilateral knee replacement, present a difficult surgical challenge.

We describe a simple solution, in which a custom-made prosthesis with a cylindrical design is cemented proximally to the stem of an existing, well-fixed femoral component. This effectively treats the fracture without sacrificing the good hip. We describe five patients with a mean age of 73 years (60 to 81) and a mean follow-up of 47 months (6 to 108).

The mean overlap of the prosthesis over the femoral component was 7.5 cm (5.5 to 10). There have been no mechanical failures, no new infections and no re-operations. We suggest that in highly selected cases, in which conventional fixation is not feasible, this technique offers a durable option and avoids the morbidity of a total femoral replacement.