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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 1 | Pages 11 - 15
1 Jan 2024
Jain S Lamb JN Pandit H

Polished taper-slip (PTS) cemented stems have an excellent clinical track record and are the most common stem type used in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the UK. Due to low rates of aseptic loosening, they have largely replaced more traditional composite beam (CB) cemented stems. However, there is now emerging evidence from multiple joint registries that PTS stems are associated with higher rates of postoperative periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) compared to their CB stem counterparts. The risk of both intraoperative and postoperative PFF remains greater with uncemented stems compared to either of these cemented stem subtypes. PFF continues to be a devastating complication following primary THA and is associated with high complication and mortality rates. Recent efforts have focused on identifying implant-related risk factors for PFF in order to guide preventative strategies, and therefore the purpose of this article is to present the current evidence on the effect of cemented femoral stem design on the risk of PFF.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2024;106-B(1):11–15.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 5 | Pages 481 - 486
1 May 2023
Scott CEH Jain S Moran M Haddad FS

The Unified Classification System (UCS), or Vancouver system, is a validated and widely used classification system to guide the management of periprosthetic femoral fractures. It suggests that well-fixed stems (type B1) can be treated with fixation but that loose stems (types B2 and B3) should be revised. Determining whether a stem is loose can be difficult and some authors have questioned how to apply this classification system to polished taper slip stems which are, by definition, loose within their cement mantle. Recent evidence has challenged the common perception that revision surgery is preferable to fixation surgery for UCS-B periprosthetic fractures around cemented polished taper slip stems. Indications for fixation include an anatomically reducible fracture and cement mantle, a well-fixed femoral bone-cement interface, and a well-functioning acetabular component. However, not all type B fractures can or should be managed with fixation due to the risk of early failure. This annotation details specific fracture patterns that should not be managed with fixation alone.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(5):481–486.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 2 | Pages 124 - 134
1 Feb 2023
Jain S Farook MZ Aslam-Pervez N Amer M Martin DH Unnithan A Middleton R Dunlop DG Scott CEH West R Pandit H


The aim of this study was to compare open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with revision surgery for the surgical management of Unified Classification System (UCS) type B periprosthetic femoral fractures around cemented polished taper-slip femoral components following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).


Data were collected for patients admitted to five UK centres. The primary outcome measure was the two-year reoperation rate. Secondary outcomes were time to surgery, transfusion requirements, critical care requirements, length of stay, two-year local complication rates, six-month systemic complication rates, and mortality rates. Comparisons were made by the form of treatment (ORIF vs revision) and UCS type (B1 vs B2/B3). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed with two-year reoperation for any reason as the endpoint.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1292 - 1303
1 Dec 2022
Polisetty TS Jain S Pang M Karnuta JM Vigdorchik JM Nawabi DH Wyles CC Ramkumar PN

Literature surrounding artificial intelligence (AI)-related applications for hip and knee arthroplasty has proliferated. However, meaningful advances that fundamentally transform the practice and delivery of joint arthroplasty are yet to be realized, despite the broad range of applications as we continue to search for meaningful and appropriate use of AI. AI literature in hip and knee arthroplasty between 2018 and 2021 regarding image-based analyses, value-based care, remote patient monitoring, and augmented reality was reviewed. Concerns surrounding meaningful use and appropriate methodological approaches of AI in joint arthroplasty research are summarized. Of the 233 AI-related orthopaedics articles published, 178 (76%) constituted original research, while the rest consisted of editorials or reviews. A total of 52% of original AI-related research concerns hip and knee arthroplasty (n = 92), and a narrative review is described. Three studies were externally validated. Pitfalls surrounding present-day research include conflating vernacular (“AI/machine learning”), repackaging limited registry data, prematurely releasing internally validated prediction models, appraising model architecture instead of inputted data, withholding code, and evaluating studies using antiquated regression-based guidelines. While AI has been applied to a variety of hip and knee arthroplasty applications with limited clinical impact, the future remains promising if the question is meaningful, the methodology is rigorous and transparent, the data are rich, and the model is externally validated. Simple checkpoints for meaningful AI adoption include ensuring applications focus on: administrative support over clinical evaluation and management; necessity of the advanced model; and the novelty of the question being answered.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(12):1292–1303.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1339 - 1344
1 Aug 2021
Jain S Mohrir G Townsend O Lamb JN Palan J Aderinto J Pandit H


This aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Unified Classification System (UCS) for postoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) around cemented polished taper-slip (PTS) stems.


Radiographs of 71 patients with a PFF admitted consecutively at two centres between 25 February 2012 and 19 May 2020 were collated by an independent investigator. Six observers (three hip consultants and three trainees) were familiarized with the UCS. Each PFF was classified on two separate occasions, with a mean time between assessments of 22.7 days (16 to 29). Interobserver reliability for more than two observers was assessed using percentage agreement and Fleiss’ kappa statistic. Intraobserver reliability between two observers was calculated with Cohen kappa statistic. Validity was tested on surgically managed UCS type B PFFs where stem stability was documented in operation notes (n = 50). Validity was assessed using percentage agreement and Cohen kappa statistic between radiological assessment and intraoperative findings. Kappa statistics were interpreted using Landis and Koch criteria. All six observers were blinded to operation notes and postoperative radiographs.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 466 - 475
8 Jul 2021
Jain S Lamb J Townsend O Scott CEH Kendrick B Middleton R Jones SA Board T West R Pandit H


This study evaluates risk factors influencing fracture characteristics for postoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) around cemented stems in total hip arthroplasty.


Data were collected for PFF patients admitted to eight UK centres between 25 May 2006 and 1 March 2020. Radiographs were assessed for Unified Classification System (UCS) grade and AO/OTA type. Statistical comparisons investigated relationships by age, gender, and stem fixation philosophy (polished taper-slip (PTS) vs composite beam (CB)). The effect of multiple variables was estimated using multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Surgical treatment (revision vs fixation) was compared by UCS grade and AO/OTA type.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1010 - 1017
1 Aug 2018
Jain S Magra M Dube B Veysi VT Whitwell GS Aderinto JB Emerton ME Stone MH Pandit HG


This study aimed to evaluate implant survival of reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty (THA) at medium-term follow-up.

Patients and Methods

A consecutive series of 1082 THAs in 982 patients with mean follow-up of 7.9 years (5 to 11.3) is presented. Mean age was 69.2 years (21 to 94). Of these, 194 (17.9%) were in patients under 60 years, 663 (61.3%) in female patients and 348 (32.2%) performed by a trainee. Head size was 28 mm in 953 hips (88.1%) or 32 mm in 129 hips (11.9%). Survival analysis was performed and subgroups compared using log rank tests.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 1 | Pages 116 - 118
1 Jan 2002
Jain S Monbaliu D Thompson JF

Traumatic posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint is an unusual injury. We report a rare, late complication in the form of a thoracic outlet syndrome. Resection of the first rib resulted in prompt and complete resolution of the symptoms and would appear to be the appropriate treatment, avoiding the complications associated with resection of the clavicle.