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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 6 | Pages 794 - 798
1 Jun 2010
Minoda Y Ikebuchi M Kobayashi A Iwaki H Inori F Nakamura H

Bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral component has been reported to decrease after total knee replacement (TKR) because of stress shielding. Our aim was to determine whether a cemented mobile-bearing component reduced the post-operative loss of BMD. In our study 28 knees receiving a cemented fixed-bearing TKR were matched with 28 receiving a cemented mobile-bearing TKR. They underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, pre-operatively and at three weeks and at three, six, 12, 18 and 24 months post-operatively. The patients were not taking medication to improve the BMD.

The pre-operative differences in the BMD of the femoral neck, wrist, lumbar spine and knee in the two groups were not significant. The BMD of the femur decreased postoperatively in the fixed-bearing group, but not the mobile-bearing group. The difference in the post-operative change in the BMD in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 18 and 24 months.

Our findings show that a cemented mobile-bearing TKR has a favourable effect on the BMD of the distal femur after TKR in the short term. Further study is required to determine the long-term effects.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 4 | Pages 463 - 468
1 Apr 2009
Fukunaga K Kobayashi A Minoda Y Iwaki H Hashimoto Y Takaoka K

The patellar clunk syndrome describes painful catching, grinding or jumping of the patella when the knee moves from a flexed to an extended position after total knee replacement (TKR). The posterior stabilised TKR had been noted to have a higher incidence of this problem. Mobile-bearing posteriorly stabilised TKRs have been introduced to improve patellar tracking and related problems by a mechanism of self-alignment. We evaluated the patellar clunk syndrome in 113 knees in 93 patients with such a TKR at a mean follow-up of 2.3 years (2.0 to 3.2). The syndrome was identified in 15 knees (13.3%).

Logistic regression analysis showed that the absolute value of the post-operative angle of patellar tilt was significantly associated with the occurrence of patellar clunk (p = 0.025). Patellar tracking should be carefully checked during surgery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 4 | Pages 550 - 555
1 May 2002
Iwaki H Scott G Freeman MAR

We studied 185 total hip replacements and related the identification of radiolucent lines (RLLs) at two years to the later development of lytic lesions and loosening. Linear polyethylene wear was also measured.

RLLs appeared in 34 hips at a mean of 2.0 years after operation, and lytic lesions in ten hips at 5.7 years. Of 151 THRs without RLLs there was neither rapid migration nor loosening and only one developed a possible lytic lesion. Of 23 hips with non-progressive RLLs there was neither rapid migration nor loosening, but six developed a lytic lesion. By contrast, 11 THRs with progressive RLLs migrated rapidly and seven developed a lytic lesion. Six THRs with progressive RLLs failed. The wear rates were the same in all groups, although limited numbers were available for study.

If the surgeon achieves secure initial fixation as shown by slow or no migration and no RLLs during the first two years, it is likely that no lytic lesions will develop by five years or aseptic loosening by ten years. If an imperfect, but adequate, interface is achieved, as shown by slow migration and non-progressive RLLs lytic lesions adjacent to the RLLs may develop by five years, but aseptic loosening will be unlikely at ten. Insecure initial fixation, as shown by more rapid migration and progressive RLLs at two years, is likely to lead to the formation of lytic lesions at five years and loosening at ten. The outcome after THR is therefore determined at the initial operation and may be predicted at two years. The presence of lytic lesions reflects soft tissue at the interface as shown by the RLLs which accompany and promote loosening but, in our study, did not cause it.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1189 - 1195
1 Nov 2000
Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In six unloaded cadaver knees we used MRI to determine the shapes of the articular surfaces and their relative movements. These were confirmed by dissection.

Medially, the femoral condyle in sagittal section is composed of the arcs of two circles and that of the tibia of two angled flats. The anterior facets articulate in extension. At about 20° the femur ‘rocks’ to articulate through the posterior facets. The medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly with flexion to 110°.

Laterally, the femoral condyle is composed entirely, or almost entirely, of a single circular facet similar in radius and arc to the posterior medial facet. The tibia is roughly flat. The femur tends to roll backwards with flexion.

The combination during flexion of no antero-posterior movement medially (i.e., sliding) and backward rolling (combined with sliding) laterally equates to internal rotation of the tibia around a medial axis with flexion. About 5° of this rotation may be obligatory from 0° to 10° flexion; thereafter little rotation occurs to at least 45°. Total rotation at 110° is about 20°, most if not all of which can be suppressed by applying external rotation to the tibia at 90°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1196 - 1198
1 Nov 2000
Hill PF Vedi V Williams A Iwaki H Pinskerova V Freeman MAR

In 13 unloaded living knees we confirmed the findings previously obtained in the unloaded cadaver knee during flexion and external rotation/internal rotation using MRI. In seven loaded living knees with the subjects squatting, the relative tibiofemoral movements were similar to those in the unloaded knee except that the medial femoral condyle tended to move about 4 mm forwards with flexion. Four of the seven loaded knees were studied during flexion in external and internal rotation. As predicted, flexion (squatting) with the tibia in external rotation suppressed the internal rotation of the tibia which had been observed during unloaded flexion.