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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 2 | Pages 166 - 173
1 Feb 2024
Scott CEH Yapp LZ MacDonald DJ Howie CR Clement ND

Aims

The primary aim was to assess change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients as they waited from six to 12 months for a total hip (THA) or total or partial knee arthroplasty (KA). Secondary aims were to assess change in joint-specific function, mental health, quality of sleep, number living in a state worse than death (WTD), wellbeing, and patient satisfaction with their healthcare.

Methods

This prospective study included 142 patients awaiting a THA (mean age 66.7 years (SD 11.4); 71 female) and 214 patients awaiting KA (mean age 69.7 years (SD 8.7); 117 female). Patients completed questionnaires (EuroQol five-dimension health questionnaire (EQ-5D), Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS/OKS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), University of California, Los Angeles Activity Scale, wellbeing assessment, and satisfaction with their healthcare) at six and 12 months while awaiting surgery.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 4 | Pages 365 - 372
15 Mar 2023
Yapp LZ Scott CEH MacDonald DJ Howie CR Simpson AHRW Clement ND

Aims

This study investigates whether primary knee arthroplasty (KA) restores health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to levels expected in the general population.

Methods

This retrospective case-control study compared HRQoL data from two sources: patients undergoing primary KA in a university-teaching hospital (2013 to 2019), and the Health Survey for England (HSE; 2010 to 2012). Patient-level data from the HSE were used to represent the general population. Propensity score matching was used to balance covariates and facilitate group comparisons. A propensity score was estimated using logistic regression based upon the covariates sex, age, and BMI. Two matched cohorts with 3,029 patients each were obtained for the adjusted analyses (median age 70.3 (interquartile range (IQR) 64 to 77); number of female patients 3,233 (53.4%); median BMI 29.7 kg/m2 (IQR 26.5 to 33.7)). HRQoL was measured using the three-level version of the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), and summarized using the Index and EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) scores.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 9 | Pages 619 - 628
7 Sep 2022
Yapp LZ Scott CEH Howie CR MacDonald DJ Simpson AHRW Clement ND

Aims

The aim of this study was to report the meaningful values of the EuroQol five-dimension three-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) and EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) in patients undergoing primary knee arthroplasty (KA).

Methods

This is a retrospective study of patients undergoing primary KA for osteoarthritis in a university teaching hospital (Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh) (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2019). Pre- and postoperative (one-year) data were prospectively collected for 3,181 patients (median age 69.9 years (interquartile range (IQR) 64.2 to 76.1); females, n = 1,745 (54.9%); median BMI 30.1 kg/m2 (IQR 26.6 to 34.2)). The reliability of the EQ-5D-3L was measured using Cronbach’s alpha. Responsiveness was determined by calculating the anchor-based minimal clinically important difference (MCID), the minimal important change (MIC) (cohort and individual), the patient-acceptable symptom state (PASS) predictive of satisfaction, and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence intervals (MDC-90).


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 4 | Pages 452 - 463
1 Apr 2022
Elcock KL Carter TH Yapp LZ MacDonald DJ Howie CR Stoddart A Berg G Clement ND Scott CEH

Aims

Access to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is sometimes restricted for patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). This study compares the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) associated with TKA in patients with a BMI above and below 40 kg/m2 to examine whether this is supported.

Methods

This single-centre study compared 169 consecutive patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) (mean age 65.2 years (40 to 87); mean BMI 44.2 kg/m2 (40 to 66); 129/169 female) undergoing unilateral TKA to a propensity score matched (age, sex, preoperative Oxford Knee Score (OKS)) cohort with a BMI < 40 kg/m2 in a 1:1 ratio. Demographic data, comorbidities, and complications to one year were recorded. Preoperative and one-year patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were completed: EuroQol five-dimension three-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), OKS, pain, and satisfaction. Using national life expectancy data with obesity correction and the 2020 NHS National Tariff, QALYs (discounted at 3.5%), and direct medical costs accrued over a patient’s lifetime, were calculated. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was used to model variation in cost/QALY for each cohort across 1,000 simulations.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1254 - 1260
1 Jul 2021
Calabro L Clement ND MacDonald D Patton JT Howie CR Burnett R

Aims

The primary aim of this study was to assess whether non-fatal postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) within six months of surgery influences the knee-specific functional outcome (Oxford Knee Score (OKS)) one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondary aims were to assess whether non-fatal postoperative VTE influences generic health and patient satisfaction at this time.

Methods

A study of 2,393 TKAs was performed in 2,393 patients. Patient demographics, comorbidities, OKS, EuroQol five-dimension score (EQ-5D), and Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) were collected preoperatively and one year postoperatively. Overall patient satisfaction with their TKA was assessed at one year. Patients with VTE within six months of surgery were identified retrospectively and compared with those without.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 6 | Pages 380 - 387
1 Jun 2021
MacDonald DJ Clement ND Howie CR Scott CEH

Aims

The primary aim was to assess the patient-perceived effect of restrictions imposed due to COVID-19 on rehabilitation following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondary aims were to assess perceived restrictions, influence on mental health, and functional outcome compared to patients undergoing surgery without restriction.

Methods

During February and March 2020, 105 patients underwent THA (n = 48) or TKA (n = 57) and completed preoperative and six-month postoperative assessments. A cohort of 415 patients undergoing surgery in 2019 were used as the control. Patient demographic data, BMI, comorbidities, Oxford Hip Score (OHS) or Knee Score (OKS), and EuroQoL five-domain (EQ-5D) score were collected preoperatively and at six months postoperatively. At six months postoperatively, the 2020 patients were also asked to complete a questionnaire relating to the effect of the social restrictions on their outcome and their mental health.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 6 | Pages 1096 - 1102
1 Jun 2021
Hamilton DF Shim J Howie CR Macfarlane GJ

Aims

Although total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a highly successful procedure, about 20% of patients remain dissatisfied postoperatively. This proportion is derived from dichotomous models of the assessment of surgical success or failure, which may not reflect the spectrum of outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore differing responses to surgery, and assess whether there are distinct groups of patients with differing patterns of outcome.

Methods

This was a secondary analysis of a UK multicentre TKA longitudinal cohort study. We used a group-based trajectory modelling analysis of Oxford Knee Score (OKS) in the first year following surgery with longitudinal data involving five different timepoints and multiple predictor variables. Associations between the derived trajectory groups and categorical baseline variables were assessed, and predictors of trajectory group membership were identified using Poisson regression and multinomial logistic regression, as appropriate. The final model was adjusted for sociodemographic factors (age, sex) and baseline OKS.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 846 - 854
3 May 2021
Clement ND Scott CEH Hamilton DF MacDonald D Howie CR

Aims

The aim of this study was to identify the minimal clinically important difference (MCID), minimal important change (MIC), minimal detectable change (MDC), and patient-acceptable symptom state (PASS) threshold in the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) according to patient satisfaction six months following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods

During a one-year period 484 patients underwent a primary TKA and completed preoperative and six-month FJS and OKS. At six months patients were asked, “How satisfied are you with your operated knee?” Their response was recorded as: very satisfied, satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied. The difference between patients recording neutral (n = 44) and satisfied (n = 153) was used to define the MCID. MIC for a cohort was defined as the change in the FJS for those patients declaring their outcome as satisfied, whereas receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the MIC for an individual and the PASS threshold. Distribution-based methodology was used to calculate the MDC.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 4 | Pages 672 - 680
1 Apr 2021
Clement ND Scott CEH Murray JRD Howie CR Deehan DJ

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life of patients on the waiting list for a total hip (THA) or knee arthroplasty (KA) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary aims were to assess whether length of time on the waiting list influenced quality of life and rate of deferral of surgery.

Methods

During the study period (August and September 2020) 843 patients (THA n = 394, KA n = 449) from ten centres in the UK reported their EuroQol five dimension (EQ-5D) scores and completed a waiting list questionnaire (2020 group). Patient demographic details, procedure, and date when listed were recorded. Patients scoring less than zero for their EQ-5D score were defined to be in a health state “worse than death” (WTD). Data from a retrospective cohort (January 2014 to September 2017) were used as the control group.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 4 | Pages 434 - 441
1 Apr 2020
Hamilton DF Burnett R Patton JT MacPherson GJ Simpson AHRW Howie CR Gaston P

Aims

There are comparatively few randomized studies evaluating knee arthroplasty prostheses, and fewer still that report longer-term functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate mid-term outcomes of an existing implant trial cohort to document changing patient function over time following total knee arthroplasty using longitudinal analytical techniques and to determine whether implant design chosen at time of surgery influenced these outcomes.

Methods

A mid-term follow-up of the remaining 125 patients from a randomized cohort of total knee arthroplasty patients (initially comprising 212 recruited patients), comparing modern (Triathlon) and traditional (Kinemax) prostheses was undertaken. Functional outcomes were assessed with the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), knee range of movement, pain numerical rating scales, lower limb power output, timed functional assessment battery, and satisfaction survey. Data were linked to earlier assessment timepoints, and analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) mixed models, incorporating longitudinal change over all assessment timepoints.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 8 | Pages 941 - 950
1 Aug 2019
Scott CEH MacDonald DJ Howie CR

Aims

The EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire is a widely used multiattribute general health questionnaire where an EQ-5D < 0 defines a state ‘worse than death’ (WTD). The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a health state WTD and to identify associations with this state. Secondary aims were to examine the effect of WTD status on one-year outcomes.

Patients and Methods

A cross-sectional analysis of 2073 patients undergoing 2073 THAs (mean age 67.4 years (sd 11.6; 14 to 95); mean body mass index (BMI) 28.5 kg/m2 (sd 5.7; 15 to 72); 1253 female (60%)) and 2168 patients undergoing 2168 TKAs (mean age 69.3 years (sd 9.6; 22 to 91); BMI 30.8 kg/m2 (sd 5.8; 13 to 57); 1244 female (57%)) were recorded. Univariate analysis was used to identify variables associated with an EQ-5D score < 0: age, BMI, sex, deprivation quintile, comorbidities, and joint-specific function measured using the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) or Oxford Knee Score (OKS). Multivariate logistic regression was performed. EQ-5D and OHS/OKS were repeated one year following surgery in 1555 THAs and 1700 TKAs.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 4 | Pages 194 - 195
1 Apr 2017
Simpson AHRW Howie CR Norrie J


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 2 | Pages 218 - 224
1 Feb 2017
Hamilton DF Loth FL Giesinger JM Giesinger K MacDonald DJ Patton JT Simpson AHRW Howie CR

Aims

To validate the English language Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12) as a tool to evaluate the outcome of hip and knee arthroplasty in a United Kingdom population.

Patients and Methods

All patients undergoing surgery between January and August 2014 were eligible for inclusion. Prospective data were collected from 205 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 231 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Outcomes were assessed with the FJS-12 and the Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) pre-operatively, then at six and 12 months post-operatively. Internal consistency, convergent validity, effect size, relative validity and ceiling effects were determined.


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 5, Issue 3 | Pages 87 - 91
1 Mar 2016
Hamilton DF Giesinger JM MacDonald DJ Simpson AHRW Howie CR Giesinger K

Objectives

To assess the responsiveness and ceiling/floor effects of the Forgotten Joint Score -12 and to compare these with that of the more widely used Oxford Hip Score (OHS) in patients six and 12 months after primary total hip arthroplasty.

Methods

We prospectively collected data at six and 12 months following total hip arthroplasty from 193 patients undergoing surgery at a single centre. Ceiling effects are outlined with frequencies for patients obtaining the lowest or highest possible score. Change over time from six months to 12 months post-surgery is reported as effect size (Cohen’s d).


Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 4, Issue 8 | Pages 137 - 144
1 Aug 2015
Hamilton DF Giesinger JM Patton JT MacDonald DJ Simpson AHRW Howie CR Giesinger K

Objectives

The Oxford Hip and Knee Scores (OHS, OKS) have been demonstrated to vary according to age and gender, making it difficult to compare results in cohorts with different demographics. The aim of this paper was to calculate reference values for different patient groups and highlight the concept of normative reference data to contextualise an individual’s outcome.

Methods

We accessed prospectively collected OHS and OKS data for patients undergoing lower limb joint arthroplasty at a single orthopaedic teaching hospital during a five-year period. T-scores were calculated based on the OHS and OKS distributions.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 6 | Pages 723 - 728
1 Jun 2015
Hamilton DF Howie CR Burnett R Simpson AHRW Patton JT

Worldwide rates of primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are rising due to increased longevity of the population and the burden of osteoarthritis.

Revision TKA is a technically demanding procedure generating outcomes which are reported to be inferior to those of primary knee arthroplasty, and with a higher risk of complication. Overall, the rate of revision after primary arthroplasty is low, but the number of patients currently living with a TKA suggests a large potential revision healthcare burden.

Many patients are now outliving their prosthesis, and consideration must be given to how we are to provide the necessary capacity to meet the rising demand for revision surgery and how to maximise patient outcomes.

The purpose of this review was to examine the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, revision knee arthroplasty, and to discuss factors that may enhance patient outcomes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:723–8.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 64 - 70
1 Jan 2015
Hamilton DF Burnett R Patton JT Howie CR Moran M Simpson AHRW Gaston P

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an established and successful procedure. However, the design of prostheses continues to be modified in an attempt to optimise the functional outcome of the patient.

The aim of this study was to determine if patient outcome after TKA was influenced by the design of the prosthesis used.

A total of 212 patients (mean age 69; 43 to 92; 131 female (62%), 81 male (32%)) were enrolled in a single centre double-blind trial and randomised to receive either a Kinemax (group 1) or a Triathlon (group 2) TKA.

Patients were assessed pre-operatively, at six weeks, six months, one year and three years after surgery. The outcome assessments used were the Oxford Knee Score; range of movement; pain numerical rating scales; lower limb power output; timed functional assessment battery and a satisfaction survey. Data were assessed incorporating change over all assessment time points, using repeated measures analysis of variance longitudinal mixed models. Implant group 2 showed a significantly greater range of movement (p = 0.009), greater lower limb power output (p = 0.026) and reduced report of ‘worst daily pain’ (p = 0.003) over the three years of follow-up. Differences in Oxford Knee Score (p = 0.09), report of ‘average daily pain’ (p = 0.57) and timed functional performance tasks (p = 0.23) did not reach statistical significance. Satisfaction with outcome was significantly better in group 2 (p = 0.001).

These results suggest that patient outcome after TKA can be influenced by the prosthesis used.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:64–70.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1339 - 1343
1 Oct 2014
Hamilton DF Burnett R Patton JT Howie CR Simpson AHRW

Instability is the reason for revision of a primary total knee replacement (TKR) in 20% of patients. To date, the diagnosis of instability has been based on the patient’s symptoms and a subjective clinical assessment. We assessed whether a measured standardised forced leg extension could be used to quantify instability.

A total of 25 patients (11 male/14 female, mean age 70 years; 49 to 85) who were to undergo a revision TKR for instability of a primary implant were assessed with a Nottingham rig pre-operatively and then at six and 26 weeks post-operatively. Output was quantified (in revolutions per minute (rpm)) by accelerating a stationary flywheel. A control group of 183 patients (71 male/112 female, mean age 69 years) who had undergone primary TKR were evaluated for comparison.

Pre-operatively, all 25 patients with instability exhibited a distinctive pattern of reduction in ‘mid-push’ speed. The mean reduction was 55 rpm (sd 33.2). Post-operatively, no patient exhibited this pattern and the reduction in ‘mid-push’ speed was 0 rpm. The change between pre- and post-operative assessment was significant (p < 0.001). No patients in the control group exhibited this pattern at any of the intervals assessed. The between-groups difference was also significant (p < 0.001). This suggests that a quantitative diagnostic test to assess the unstable primary TKR could be developed.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1339–43.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 5 | Pages 622 - 628
1 May 2014
Hamilton DF Lane JV Gaston P Patton JT MacDonald DJ Simpson AHRW Howie CR

Satisfaction with care is important to both patients and to those who pay for it. The Net Promoter Score (NPS), widely used in the service industries, has been introduced into the NHS as the ‘friends and family test’; an overarching measure of patient satisfaction. It assesses the likelihood of the patient recommending the healthcare received to another, and is seen as a discriminator of healthcare performance. We prospectively assessed 6186 individuals undergoing primary lower limb joint replacement at a single university hospital to determine the Net Promoter Score for joint replacements and to evaluate which factors contributed to the response.

Achieving pain relief (odds ratio (OR) 2.13, confidence interval (CI) 1.83 to 2.49), the meeting of pre-operative expectation (OR 2.57, CI 2.24 to 2.97), and the hospital experience (OR 2.33, CI 2.03 to 2.68) are the domains that explain whether a patient would recommend joint replacement services. These three factors, combined with the type of surgery undertaken (OR 2.31, CI 1.68 to 3.17), drove a predictive model that was able to explain 95% of the variation in the patient’s recommendation response. Though intuitively similar, this ‘recommendation’ metric was found to be materially different to satisfaction responses. The difference between THR (NPS 71) and TKR (NPS 49) suggests that no overarching score for a department should be used without an adjustment for case mix. However, the Net Promoter Score does measure a further important dimension to our existing metrics: the patient experience of healthcare delivery.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:622–8.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 1 | Pages 115 - 121
1 Jan 2013
Jenkins PJ Clement ND Hamilton DF Gaston P Patton JT Howie CR

The aim of this study was to perform a cost–utility analysis of total hip (THR) and knee replacement (TKR). Arthritis is a disabling condition that leads to long-term deterioration in quality of life. Total joint replacement, despite being one of the greatest advances in medicine of the modern era, has recently come under scrutiny. The National Health Service (NHS) has competing demands, and resource allocation is challenging in times of economic restraint. Patients who underwent THR (n = 348) or TKR (n = 323) between January and July 2010 in one Scottish region were entered into a prospective arthroplasty database. A health–utility score was derived from the EuroQol (EQ-5D) score pre-operatively and at one year, and was combined with individual life expectancy to derive the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare QALYs gained between procedures, while controlling for baseline differences. The number of QALYs gained was higher after THR than after TKR (6.5 vs 4.0 years, p < 0.001). The cost per QALY for THR was £1372 compared with £2101 for TKR. The predictors of an increase in QALYs gained were poorer health before surgery (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.001). General health (EQ-5D VAS) showed greater improvement after THR than after TKR (p < 0.001). This study provides up-to-date cost-effectiveness data for total joint replacement. THR and TKR are extremely effective both clinically and in terms of cost effectiveness, with costs that compare favourably to those of other medical interventions.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:115–21.