header advert
Results 1 - 2 of 2
Results per page:
Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 11, Issue 7 | Pages 426 - 438
20 Jul 2022
Luo P Wang P Xu J Hou W Xu P Xu K Liu L

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that involves T and B cells and their reciprocal immune interactions with proinflammatory cytokines. T cells, an essential part of the immune system, play an important role in RA. T helper 1 (Th1) cells induce interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-2, which are proinflammatory cytokines, leading to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Th2 cells primarily secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which exert anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects in inflammatory arthritis models. IL-22 secreted by Th17 cells promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts through induction of the chemokine C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). T follicular helper (Tfh) cells produce IL-21, which is key for B cell stimulation by the C-X-C chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) and coexpression with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and/or inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). PD-1 inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, there are many immunomodulatory agents that promote or inhibit the immunomodulatory role of T helper cells in RA to alleviate disease progression. These findings help to elucidate the aetiology and treatment of RA and point us toward the next steps.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2022;11(7):426–438.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 10 | Pages 572 - 576
1 Oct 2017
Wang W Huang S Hou W Liu Y Fan Q He A Wen Y Hao J Guo X Zhang F


Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of bone mineral density (BMD) have successfully identified multiple susceptibility genes, yet isolated susceptibility genes are often difficult to interpret biologically. The aim of this study was to unravel the genetic background of BMD at pathway level, by integrating BMD GWAS data with genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs) data


We employed the GWAS datasets of BMD from the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis Consortium (GEFOS), analysing patients’ BMD. The areas studied included 32 735 femoral necks, 28 498 lumbar spines, and 8143 forearms. Genome-wide eQTLs (containing 923 021 eQTLs) and meQTLs (containing 683 152 unique methylation sites with local meQTLs) data sets were collected from recently published studies. Gene scores were first calculated by summary data-based Mendelian randomisation (SMR) software and meQTL-aligned GWAS results. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was then applied to identify BMD-associated gene sets with a predefined significance level of 0.05.