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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 9 | Pages 611 - 618
27 Sep 2021
Ali E Birch M Hopper N Rushton N McCaskie AW Brooks RA


Accumulated evidence indicates that local cell origins may ingrain differences in the phenotypic activity of human osteoblasts. We hypothesized that these differences may also exist in osteoblasts harvested from the same bone type at periarticular sites, including those adjacent to the fixation sites for total joint implant components.


Human osteoblasts were obtained from the acetabulum and femoral neck of seven patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and from the femoral and tibial cuts of six patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Osteoblasts were extracted from the usually discarded bone via enzyme digestion, characterized by flow cytometry, and cultured to passage three before measurement of metabolic activity, collagen production, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, and mineralization.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 7, Issue 1 | Pages 94 - 102
1 Jan 2018
Hopper N Singer E Henson F


The exact aetiology and pathogenesis of microdamage-induced long bone fractures remain unknown. These fractures are likely to be the result of inadequate bone remodelling in response to damage. This study aims to identify an association of osteocyte apoptosis, the presence of osteocytic osteolysis, and any alterations in sclerostin expression with a fracture of the third metacarpal (Mc-III) bone of Thoroughbred racehorses.


A total of 30 Mc-III bones were obtained; ten bones were fractured during racing, ten were from the contralateral limb, and ten were from control horses. Each Mc-III bone was divided into a fracture site, condyle, condylar groove, and sagittal ridge. Microcracks and diffuse microdamage were quantified. Apoptotic osteocytes were measured using TUNEL staining. Cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), HtrA1, and sclerostin expression were analyzed.