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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 7 | Pages 536 - 542
11 Jul 2022
Karayiannis PN Agus A Bryce L Hill JC Beverland D


Tranexamic acid (TXA) is now commonly used in major surgical operations including orthopaedics. The TRAC-24 randomized control trial (RCT) aimed to assess if an additional 24 hours of TXA postoperatively in primary total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reduced blood loss. Contrary to other orthopaedic studies to date, this trial included high-risk patients. This paper presents the results of a cost analysis undertaken alongside this RCT.


TRAC-24 was a prospective RCT on patients undergoing TKA and THA. Three groups were included: Group 1 received 1 g intravenous (IV) TXA perioperatively and an additional 24-hour postoperative oral regime, Group 2 received only the perioperative dose, and Group 3 did not receive TXA. Cost analysis was performed out to day 90.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 11 | Pages 966 - 973
17 Nov 2021
Milligan DJ Hill JC Agus A Bryce L Gallagher N Beverland D


The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a pilot enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme on length of stay (LOS) and post-discharge resource usage via service evaluation and cost analysis.


Between May and December 2019, 100 patients requiring hip or knee arthroplasty were enrolled with the intention that each would have a preadmission discharge plan, a preoperative education class with nominated helper, a day of surgery admission and mobilization, a day one discharge, and access to a 24/7 dedicated helpline. Each was matched with a patient under the pre-existing pathway from the previous year.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1595 - 1603
1 Oct 2021
Magill P Hill JC Bryce L Martin U Dorman A Hogg R Campbell C Gardner E McFarland M Bell J Benson G Beverland D


In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), blood loss continues internally after surgery is complete. Typically, the total loss over 48 postoperative hours can be around 1,300 ml, with most occurring within the first 24 hours. We hypothesize that the full potential of tranexamic acid (TXA) to decrease TKA blood loss has not yet been harnessed because it is rarely used beyond the intraoperative period, and is usually withheld from ‘high-risk’ patients with a history of thromboembolic, cardiovascular, or cerebrovascular disease, a patient group who would benefit greatly from a reduced blood loss.


TRAC-24 was a prospective, phase IV, single-centre, open label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial on patients undergoing TKA, including those labelled as high-risk. The primary outcome was indirect calculated blood loss (IBL) at 48 hours. Group 1 received 1 g intravenous (IV) TXA at the time of surgery and an additional 24-hour postoperative oral regime of four 1 g doses, while Group 2 only received the intraoperative dose and Group 3 did not receive any TXA.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 7 | Pages 515 - 521
12 Jul 2021
Crookes PF Cassidy RS Machowicz A Hill JC McCaffrey J Turner G Beverland D


We studied the outcomes of hip and knee arthroplasties in a high-volume arthroplasty centre to determine if patients with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) had unacceptably worse outcomes as compared to those with BMI < 40 kg/m2.


In a two-year period, 4,711 patients had either total hip arthroplasty (THA; n = 2,370), total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 2,109), or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA; n = 232). Of these patients, 392 (8.3%) had morbid obesity. We compared duration of operation, anaesthetic time, length of stay (LOS), LOS > three days, out of hours attendance, emergency department attendance, readmission to hospital, return to theatre, and venous thromboembolism up to 90 days. Readmission for wound infection was recorded to one year. Oxford scores were recorded preoperatively and at one year postoperatively.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1197 - 1205
1 Jul 2021
Magill P Hill JC Bryce L Martin U Dorman A Hogg R Campbell C Gardner E McFarland M Bell J Benson G Beverland D


A typical pattern of blood loss associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) is 200 ml intraoperatively and 1.3 l in the first 48 postoperative hours. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is most commonly given as a single preoperative dose only and is often withheld from patients with a history of thromboembolic disease as they are perceived to be “high-risk” with respect to postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). The TRanexamic ACid for 24 hours trial (TRAC-24) aimed to identify if an additional 24-hour postoperative TXA regime could further reduce blood loss beyond a once-only dose at the time of surgery, without excluding these high-risk patients.


TRAC-24 was a prospective, phase IV, single centre, open label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving patients undergoing primary unilateral elective THA. The primary outcome measure was the indirect calculated blood loss (IBL) at 48 hours. The patients were randomized into three groups. Group 1 received 1 g intravenous (IV) TXA at the time of surgery and an additional oral regime for 24 hours postoperatively, group 2 only received the intraoperative dose, and group 3 did not receive any TXA.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 8 | Pages 488 - 493
18 Aug 2020
Kang HW Bryce L Cassidy R Hill JC Diamond O Beverland D


The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) concept in arthroplasty surgery has led to a reduction in postoperative length of stay in recent years. Patients with prolonged length of stay (PLOS) add to the burden of a strained NHS. Our aim was to identify the main reasons.


A PLOS was arbitrarily defined as an inpatient hospital stay of four days or longer from admission date. A total of 2,000 consecutive arthroplasty patients between September 2017 and July 2018 were reviewed. Of these, 1,878 patients were included after exclusion criteria were applied. Notes for 524 PLOS patients were audited to determine predominant reasons for PLOS.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 7 | Pages 938 - 944
1 Jul 2018
Karayiannis PN Hill JC Stevenson C Finnegan S Armstrong L Beverland D


The aims of this study were to determine the indications and frequency of ordering a CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) following primary arthroplasty of the hip and knee, and to determine the number of positive scans in these patients, the location of emboli and the outcome for patients undergoing CTPA.

Patients and Methods

We analyzed the use of CTPA, as an inpatient and up to 90 days as an outpatient, in a cohort of patients and reviewed the medical records and imaging for each patient undergoing CTPA.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1589 - 1596
1 Dec 2016
Magill P Blaney J Hill JC Bonnin MP Beverland DE


Our aim was to report survivorship data and lessons learned with the Corail/Pinnacle cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) system.

Patients and Methods

Between August 2005 and March 2015, a total of 4802 primary cementless Corail/Pinnacle THAs were performed in 4309 patients. In March 2016, we reviewed these hips from a prospectively maintained database.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 98-B, Issue 1_Supple_A | Pages 37 - 43
1 Jan 2016
Beverland DE O’Neill CKJ Rutherford M Molloy D Hill JC

Ideal placement of the acetabular component remains elusive both in terms of defining and achieving a target. Our aim is to help restore original anatomy by using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) to control the height, depth and version of the component. In the normal hip the TAL and labrum extend beyond the equator of the femoral head and therefore, if the definitive acetabular component is positioned such that it is cradled by and just deep to the plane of the TAL and labrum and is no more than 4mm larger than the original femoral head, the centre of the hip should be restored. If the face of the component is positioned parallel to the TAL and psoas groove the patient specific version should be restored. We still use the TAL for controlling version in the dysplastic hip because we believe that the TAL and labrum compensate for any underlying bony abnormality.

The TAL should not be used as an aid to inclination. Worldwide, > 75% of surgeons operate with the patient in the lateral decubitus position and we have shown that errors in post-operative radiographic inclination (RI) of > 50° are generally caused by errors in patient positioning. Consequently, great care needs to be taken when positioning the patient. We also recommend 35° of apparent operative inclination (AOI) during surgery, as opposed to the traditional 45°.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):37–43.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 3 | Pages 300 - 305
1 Mar 2015
Hill JC Diamond OJ O’Brien S Boldt JG Stevenson M Beverland DE

Ceramic-on-metal (CoM) is a relatively new bearing combination for total hip arthroplasty (THA) with few reported outcomes. A total of 287 CoM THAs were carried out in 271 patients (mean age 55.6 years (20 to 77), 150 THAs in female patients, 137 in male) under the care of a single surgeon between October 2007 and October 2009. With the issues surrounding metal-on-metal bearings the decision was taken to review these patients between March and November 2011, at a mean follow-up of 34 months (23 to 45) and to record pain, outcome scores, radiological analysis and blood ion levels. The mean Oxford Hip Score was 19.2 (12 to 53), 254 patients with 268 hips (95%) had mild/very mild/no pain, the mean angle of inclination of the acetabular component was 44.8o (28o to 63o), 82 stems (29%) had evidence of radiolucent lines of > 1 mm in at least one Gruen zone and the median levels of cobalt and chromium ions in the blood were 0.83 μg/L (0.24 μg/L to 27.56 μg/L) and 0.78 μg/L (0.21 μg/L to 8.84 μg/L), respectively. The five-year survival rate is 96.9% (95% confidence interval 94.7% to 99%).

Due to the presence of radiolucent lines and the higher than expected levels of metal ions in the blood, we would not recommend the use of CoM THA without further long-term follow-up. We plan to monitor all these patients regularly.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:300–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 339 - 342
1 Mar 2013
Milligan DJ O’Brien S Bennett D Hill JC Beverland DE

With greater numbers of younger patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR), the effect of patient age on the diameter of the femoral canal may become more relevant. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the diameter of the diaphysis of the femoral canal with increasing age in a large number of patients who underwent THR. A total of 1685 patients scheduled for THR had their femoral dimensions recorded from calibrated radiographs. There were 736 males and 949 females with mean ages of 67.1 years (34 to 92) and 70.2 years (29 to 92), respectively. The mean diameter of the femoral canal was 13.3 mm (8.0 to 23.0) for males and 12.7 mm (6.0 to 26.0) for females. There was a poor correlation between age and the diameter of the canal in males (r = 0.071, p = 0.05) but a stronger correlation in females (r = 0.31, p < 0.001).

The diameter of the femoral canal diameter of a female patient undergoing THR could be predicted to increase by 3.2 mm between the ages of 40 and 80 years, in contrast a male would be expected to experience only a 0.6 mm increase during the same period. This increase in the diameter of the canal with age might affect the long-term survival of the femoral component in female patients.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:339–42.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1468 - 1474
1 Nov 2012
Hill JC Archbold HAP Diamond OJ Orr JF Jaramaz B Beverland DE

Restoration of leg length and offset is an important goal in total hip replacement. This paper reports a calliper-based technique to help achieve these goals by restoring the location of the centre of the femoral head. This was validated first by using a co-ordinate measuring machine to see how closely the calliper technique could record and restore the centre of the femoral head when simulating hip replacement on Sawbone femur, and secondly by using CT in patients undergoing hip replacement.

Results from the co-ordinate measuring machine showed that the centre of the femoral head was predicted by the calliper to within 4.3 mm for offset (mean 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4 to 2.8)) and 2.4 mm for vertical height (mean -0.6 (95% CI -1.4 to 0.2)). The CT scans showed that offset and vertical height were restored to within 8 mm (mean -1 (95% CI -2.1 to 0.6)) and -14 mm (mean 4 (95% CI 1.8 to 4.3)), respectively.

Accurate assessment and restoration of the centre of the femoral head is feasible with a calliper. It is quick, inexpensive, simple to use and can be applied to any design of femoral component.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1209 - 1214
1 Sep 2010
Hill JC Gibson DP Pagoti R Beverland DE

The angle of inclination of the acetabular component in total hip replacement is a recognised contributing factor in dislocation and early wear. During non-navigated surgery, insertion of the acetabular component has traditionally been performed at an angle of 45° relative to the sagittal plane as judged by the surgeon’s eye, the operative inclination. Typically, the method used to assess inclination is the measurement made on the postoperative anteroposterior radiograph, the radiological inclination.

The aim of this study was to measure the intra-operative angle of inclination of the acetabular component on 60 consecutive patients in the lateral decubitus position when using a posterior approach during total hip replacement. This was achieved by taking intra-operative photographs of the acetabular inserter, representing the acetabular axis, and a horizontal reference. The results were compared with the post-operative radiological inclination.

The mean post-operative radiological inclination was 13° greater than the photographed operative inclination, which was unexpectedly high. It appears that in the lateral decubitus position with a posterior approach, the uppermost hemipelvis adducts, thus reducing the apparent operative inclination. Surgeons using the posterior approach in lateral decubitus need to aim for a lower operative inclination than when operating with the patient supine in order to achieve an acceptable radiological inclination.