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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 3 | Pages 198 - 204
16 Mar 2023
Ramsay N Close JCT Harris IA Harvey LA

Aims

Cementing in arthroplasty for hip fracture is associated with improved postoperative function, but may have an increased risk of early mortality compared to uncemented fixation. Quantifying this mortality risk is important in providing safe patient care. This study investigated the association between cement use in arthroplasty and mortality at 30 days and one year in patients aged 50 years and over with hip fracture.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study used linked data from the Australian Hip Fracture Registry and the National Death Index. Descriptive analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves tested the unadjusted association of mortality between cemented and uncemented procedures. Multilevel logistic regression, adjusted for covariates, tested the association between cement use and 30-day mortality following arthroplasty. Given the known institutional variation in preference for cemented fixation, an instrumental variable analysis was also performed to minimize the effect of unknown confounders. Adjusted Cox modelling analyzed the association between cement use and mortality at 30 days and one year following surgery.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 5 | Pages 604 - 612
1 May 2022
MacDessi SJ Wood JA Diwan A Harris IA

Aims

Intraoperative pressure sensors allow surgeons to quantify soft-tissue balance during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether using sensors to achieve soft-tissue balance was more effective than manual balancing in improving outcomes in TKA.

Methods

A multicentre randomized trial compared the outcomes of sensor balancing (SB) with manual balancing (MB) in 250 patients (285 TKAs). The primary outcome measure was the mean difference in the four Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (ΔKOOS4) in the two groups, comparing the preoperative and two-year scores. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative balance data, additional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and functional measures.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 3, Issue 3 | Pages 252 - 260
17 Mar 2022
Badge H Churches T Xuan W Naylor JM Harris IA

Aims

Antibiotic prophylaxis involving timely administration of appropriately dosed antibiotic is considered effective to reduce the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Cephalosporins provide effective prophylaxis, although evidence regarding the optimal timing and dosage of prophylactic antibiotics is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the association between cephalosporin prophylaxis dose, timing, and duration, and the risk of SSI after THA/TKA.

Methods

A prospective multicentre cohort study was undertaken in consenting adults with osteoarthritis undergoing elective primary TKA/THA at one of 19 high-volume Australian public/private hospitals. Data were collected prior to and for one-year post surgery. Logistic regression was undertaken to explore associations between dose, timing, and duration of cephalosporin prophylaxis and SSI. Data were analyzed for 1,838 participants. There were 264 SSI comprising 63 deep SSI (defined as requiring intravenous antibiotics, readmission, or reoperation) and 161 superficial SSI (defined as requiring oral antibiotics) experienced by 249 (13.6%) participants within 365 days of surgery.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 6 | Pages 422 - 432
22 Jun 2021
Heath EL Ackerman IN Cashman K Lorimer M Graves SE Harris IA

Aims

This study aims to describe the pre- and postoperative self-reported health and quality of life from a national cohort of patients undergoing elective total conventional hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Australia. For context, these data will be compared with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) data from other international nation-wide registries.

Methods

Between 2018 to 2020, and nested within a nationwide arthroplasty registry, preoperative and six-month postoperative PROMs were electronically collected from patients before and after elective THA and TKA. There were 5,228 THA and 8,299 TKA preoperative procedures as well as 3,215 THA and 4,982 TKA postoperative procedures available for analysis. Validated PROMs included the EuroQol five-dimension five-level questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L; range 0 to 100; scored worst-best health), Oxford Hip/Knee Scores (OHS/OKS; range 0 to 48; scored worst-best hip/knee function) and the 12-item Hip/Knee disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS-12/KOOS-12; range 0 to 100; scored best-worst hip/knee health). Additional items included preoperative expectations, patient-perceived improvement, and postoperative satisfaction. Descriptive analyses were undertaken.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 2, Issue 5 | Pages 351 - 358
27 May 2021
Griffiths-Jones W Chen DB Harris IA Bellemans J MacDessi SJ

Aims

Once knee arthritis and deformity have occurred, it is currently not known how to determine a patient’s constitutional (pre-arthritic) limb alignment. The purpose of this study was to describe and validate the arithmetic hip-knee-ankle (aHKA) algorithm as a straightforward method for preoperative planning and intraoperative restoration of the constitutional limb alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods

A comparative cross-sectional, radiological study was undertaken of 500 normal knees and 500 arthritic knees undergoing TKA. By definition, the aHKA algorithm subtracts the lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA) from the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA). The mechanical HKA (mHKA) of the normal group was compared to the mHKA of the arthritic group to examine the difference, specifically related to deformity in the latter. The mHKA and aHKA were then compared in the normal group to assess for differences related to joint line convergence. Lastly, the aHKA of both the normal and arthritic groups were compared to test the hypothesis that the aHKA can estimate the constitutional alignment of the limb by sharing a similar centrality and distribution with the normal population.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 2 | Pages 329 - 337
1 Feb 2021
MacDessi SJ Griffiths-Jones W Harris IA Bellemans J Chen DB

Aims

A comprehensive classification for coronal lower limb alignment with predictive capabilities for knee balance would be beneficial in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This paper describes the Coronal Plane Alignment of the Knee (CPAK) classification and examines its utility in preoperative soft tissue balance prediction, comparing kinematic alignment (KA) to mechanical alignment (MA).

Methods

A radiological analysis of 500 healthy and 500 osteoarthritic (OA) knees was used to assess the applicability of the CPAK classification. CPAK comprises nine phenotypes based on the arithmetic HKA (aHKA) that estimates constitutional limb alignment and joint line obliquity (JLO). Intraoperative balance was compared within each phenotype in a cohort of 138 computer-assisted TKAs randomized to KA or MA. Primary outcomes included descriptive analyses of healthy and OA groups per CPAK type, and comparison of balance at 10° of flexion within each type. Secondary outcomes assessed balance at 45° and 90° and bone recuts required to achieve final knee balance within each CPAK type.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 9 | Pages 549 - 555
11 Sep 2020
Sonntag J Landale K Brorson S Harris IA

Aims

The aim of this study was to investigate surgeons’ reported change of treatment preference in response to the results and conclusion from a randomized contolled trial (RCT) and to study patterns of change between subspecialties and nationalities.

Methods

Two questionnaires were developed through the Delphi process for this cross-sectional survey of surgical preference. The first questionnaire was sent out before the publication of a RCT and the second questionnaire was sent out after publication. The RCT investigated repair or non-repair of the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle during volar locked plating of distal radial fractures (DRFs). Overall, 380 orthopaedic surgeons were invited to participate in the first questionnaire, of whom 115 replied. One hundred surgeons were invited to participate in the second questionnaire. The primary outcome was the proportion of surgeons for whom a treatment change was warranted, who then reported a change of treatment preference following the RCT. Secondary outcomes included the reasons for repair or non-repair, reasons for and against following the RCT results, and difference of preferred treatment of the PQ muscle between surgeons of different nationalities, qualifications, years of training, and number of procedures performed per year.


Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 1, Issue 7 | Pages 339 - 345
3 Jul 2020
MacDessi SJ Griffiths-Jones W Harris IA Bellemans J Chen DB

Aims

An algorithm to determine the constitutional alignment of the lower limb once arthritic deformity has occurred would be of value when undertaking kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine if the arithmetic hip-knee-ankle angle (aHKA) algorithm could estimate the constitutional alignment of the lower limb following development of significant arthritis.

Methods

A matched-pairs radiological study was undertaken comparing the aHKA of an osteoarthritic knee (aHKA-OA) with the mechanical HKA of the contralateral normal knee (mHKA-N). Patients with Grade 3 or 4 Kellgren-Lawrence tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in an arthritic knee undergoing TKA and Grade 0 or 1 osteoarthritis in the contralateral normal knee were included. The aHKA algorithm subtracts the lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA) from the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) measured on standing long leg radiographs. The primary outcome was the mean of the paired differences in the aHKA-OA and mHKA-N. Secondary outcomes included comparison of sex-based differences and capacity of the aHKA to determine the constitutional alignment based on degree of deformity.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 1 | Pages 117 - 124
1 Jan 2020
MacDessi SJ Griffiths-Jones W Chen DB Griffiths-Jones S Wood JA Diwan AD Harris IA

Aims

It is unknown whether kinematic alignment (KA) objectively improves knee balance in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), despite this being the biomechanical rationale for its use. This study aimed to determine whether restoring the constitutional alignment using a restrictive KA protocol resulted in better quantitative knee balance than mechanical alignment (MA).

Methods

We conducted a randomized superiority trial comparing patients undergoing TKA assigned to KA within a restrictive safe zone or MA. Optimal knee balance was defined as an intercompartmental pressure difference (ICPD) of 15 psi or less using a pressure sensor. The primary endpoint was the mean intraoperative ICPD at 10° of flexion prior to knee balancing. Secondary outcomes included balance at 45° and 90°, requirements for balancing procedures, and presence of tibiofemoral lift-off.


The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 1 | Pages 92 - 95
1 Jan 2019
Harris IA Cuthbert A de Steiger R Lewis P Graves SE

Aims

Displaced femoral neck fractures (FNF) may be treated with partial (hemiarthroplasty, HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA), with recent recommendations advising that THA be used in community-ambulant patients. This study aims to determine the association between the proportion of FNF treated with THA and year of surgery, day of the week, surgeon practice, and private versus public hospitals, adjusting for known confounders.

Patients and Methods

Data from 67 620 patients in the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) from 1999 to 2016 inclusive were used to generate unadjusted and adjusted analyses of the associations between patient, time, surgeon and institution factors, and the proportion of FNF treated with THA.