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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 5 | Pages 614 - 622
1 May 2017
Grammatopoulos G Bolduc M Atkins BL Kendrick BJL McLardy-Smith P Murray DW Gundle R Taylor AH


Advocates of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) in hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) argue that a procedure not disturbing a sound prosthesis-bone interface is likely to lead to better survival and functional outcome compared with revision. This case-control study aims were to compare outcome of DAIRs for infected primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) with outcomes following primary THA and two-stage revision of infected primary THAs.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed all DAIRs, performed for confirmed infected primary hip arthropasty (n = 82) at out institution, between 1997 and 2013. Data recorded included full patient information and type of surgery. Outcome measures included complications, mortality, implant survivorship and functional outcome. Outcome was compared with two control groups matched for gender and age; a cohort of primary THAs (n = 120) and a cohort of two-stage revisions for infection (n = 66).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1180 - 1186
1 Sep 2012
Murray DW Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Gundle R Gill HS McLardy-Smith P

Recent events have highlighted the importance of implant design for survival and wear-related complications following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The mid-term survival of the most widely used implant, the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR), has been described by its designers. The aim of this study was to report the ten-year survival and patient-reported functional outcome of the BHR from an independent centre.

In this cohort of 554 patients (646 BHRs) with a mean age of 51.9 years (16.5 to 81.5) followed for a mean of eight years (1 to 12), the survival and patient-reported functional outcome depended on gender and the size of the implant. In female hips (n = 267) the ten-year survival was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83 to 91), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 7%, the mean Oxford hip score (OHS) was 43 (sd 8) and the mean UCLA activity score was 6.4 (sd 2). In male hips (n = 379) the ten-year survival was 95% (95% CI 92.0 to 97.4), the ten-year revision rate for pseudotumour was 1.7%, the mean OHS was 45 (sd 6) and the mean UCLA score was 7.6 (sd 2). In the most demanding subgroup, comprising male patients aged < 50 years treated for primary osteoarthritis, the survival was 99% (95% CI 97 to 100).

This study supports the ongoing use of resurfacing in young active men, who are a subgroup of patients who tend to have problems with conventional THR. In contrast, the results in women have been poor and we do not recommend metal-on-metal resurfacing in women. Continuous follow-up is recommended because of the increasing incidence of pseudotumour with the passage of time.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 6 | Pages 751 - 754
1 Jun 2011
Choa R Gundle R Critchley P Giele H

Deep prosthetic joint infection remains an uncommon but serious complication of total hip replacement. We reviewed 24 patients with recalcitrant hip wounds following infected total hip replacement treated with either pedicled rectus femoris or vastus lateralis muscle flaps between 1998 and 2009. The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years (42 to 86) with ten men and 14 women.

There had been a mean of four (1 to 8) previous attempts to close the wound. A total of 20 rectus femoris and five vastus lateralis flaps were used, with one of each type of flap failing and requiring further reconstruction. All patients had positive microbiology. At a mean follow-up of 47 months (9 to 128), 22 patients had a healed wound and two had a persistent sinus. The prosthesis had been retained in five patients. In the remainder it had been removed, and subsequently re-implanted in nine patients. Six patients continued to take antibiotics at final follow-up.

This series demonstrates the effectiveness of pedicled muscle flaps in healing these infected wounds. The high number of previous debridements suggests that these flaps could have been used earlier.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1072 - 1078
1 Aug 2010
Grammatopoulos G Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gill HS Murray DW

Pseudotumours are a rare complication of hip resurfacing. They are thought to be a response to metal debris which may be caused by edge loading due to poor orientation of the acetabular component. Our aim was to determine the optimal acetabular orientation to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation.

We matched 31 hip resurfacings revised for pseudotumour formation with 58 controls who had a satisfactory outcome from this procedure. The radiographic inclination and anteversion angles of the acetabular component were measured on anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis using Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse software. The mean inclination angle (47°, 10° to 81°) and anteversion angle (14°, 4° to 34°) of the pseudotumour cases were the same (p = 0.8, p = 0.2) as the controls, 46° (29° to 60°) and 16° (4° to 30°) respectively, but the variation was greater. Assuming an accuracy of implantation of ± 10° about a target position, the optimal radiographic position was found to be approximately 45° of inclination and 20° of anteversion. The incidence of pseudotumours inside the zone was four times lower (p = 0.007) than outside the zone.

In order to minimise the risk of pseudotumour formation we recommend that surgeons implant the acetabular component at an inclination of 45° (± 10) and anteversion of 20° (± 10) on post-operative radiographs. Because of differences between the radiographic and the operative angles, this may be best achieved by aiming for an inclination of 40° and an anteversion of 25°.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 91-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1019 - 1024
1 Aug 2009
Grammatopolous G Pandit H Kwon Y Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Beard DJ Murray DW Gill HS

Inflammatory pseudotumours occasionally occur after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and often lead to revision. Our aim was to determine the severity of this complication by assessing the outcome of revision in these circumstances and by comparing this with the outcome of other metal-on-metal hip resurfacing revisions as well as that of matched primary total hip replacements.

We identified 53 hips which had undergone metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and required revision at a mean of 1.59 years (0.01 to 6.69) after operation. Of these, 16 were revised for pseudotumours, 21 for fracture and 16 for other reasons. These were matched by age, gender and diagnosis with 103 patients undergoing primary total hip replacement with the Exeter implant.

At a mean follow-up of three years (0.8 to 7.2) the outcome of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing revision for pseudotumour was poor with a mean Oxford hip score of 20.9 (sd 9.3) and was significantly worse (p < 0.001) than the outcome for fracture with a mean Oxford hip score of 40.2 (sd 9.2) or that for other causes with a mean Oxford hip score of 37.8 (sd 9.4). The clinical outcome of revision for pseudotumour was also significantly worse (p < 0.001) than the outcome of matched primary total hip replacements. By contrast, the outcome for fracture and other causes was not significantly different from that of matched primary total hip replacements (p = 0.065). After revision for pseudotumour there were three cases of recurrent dislocation, three of palsy of the femoral nerve, one of stenosis of the femoral artery and two of loosening of the component. Five hips required further revision. In three of these there was evidence of recurrent pseudotumour, and one is currently awaiting further revision. The incidence of major complications after revision for pseudotumour (50%) was significantly higher (p = 0.018) than that after revision for other causes (14%).

The outcome of revision for pseudotumour is poor and consideration should be given to early revision to limit the extent of the soft-tissue destruction. The outcome of resurfacing revision for other causes is good.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 7 | Pages 847 - 851
1 Jul 2008
Pandit H Glyn-Jones S McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Whitwell D Gibbons CLM Ostlere S Athanasou N Gill HS Murray DW

We report 17 patients (20 hips) in whom metal-on-metal resurfacing had been performed and who presented with various symptoms and a soft-tissue mass which we termed a pseudotumour. Each patient underwent plain radiography and in some, CT, MRI and ultrasonography were also performed. In addition, histological examination of available samples was undertaken.

All the patients were women and their presentation was variable. The most common symptom was discomfort in the region of the hip. Other symptoms included spontaneous dislocation, nerve palsy, a noticeable mass or a rash. The common histological features were extensive necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration. To date, 13 of the 20 hips have required revision to a conventional hip replacement. Two are awaiting revision.

We estimate that approximately 1% of patients who have a metal-on-metal resurfacing develop a pseudotumour within five years. The cause is unknown and is probably multifactorial. There may be a toxic reaction to an excess of particulate metal wear debris or a hypersensitivity reaction to a normal amount of metal debris. We are concerned that with time the incidence of these pseudotumours may increase. Further investigation is required to define their cause.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 90-B, Issue 4 | Pages 436 - 441
1 Apr 2008
Steffen RT Pandit HP Palan J Beard DJ Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Murray DW Gill HS

Few independent studies have reported the outcome of resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip. The aim of this study was to report the five-year clinical outcome and seven-year survival of an independent series.

A total of 610 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing arthroplasties were performed in 532 patients with a mean age of 51.8 years (16.5 to 81.6). They were followed for between two and eight years; 107 patients (120 hips) had been followed up for more than five years. Two patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum of five years’ follow-up, 79 of 85 hips (93%) had an excellent or good outcome according to the Harris hip score. The mean Oxford hip score was 16.1 points (sd 7.7) and the mean University of California Los Angeles activity score was 6.6 points (sd 1.9). There were no patients with definite radiological evidence of loosening or of narrowing of the femoral neck exceeding 10% of its width. There were 23 revisions (3.8%), giving an overall survival of 95% (95% confidence interval 85.3 to 99.2) at seven years. Fractured neck of femur in 12 hips was the most common indication for revision, followed by aseptic loosening in four. In three hips (three patients) (0.5%), failure was possibly related to metal debris.

Considering that these patients are young and active these results are good, and support the use of resurfacing. Further study is needed to address the early failures, particularly those related to fracture and metal debris.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 3 | Pages 320 - 323
1 Mar 2005
Little CP Ruiz AL Harding IJ McLardy-Smith P Gundle R Murray DW Athanasou NA

We present the histological findings of bone retrieved from beneath the femoral components of failed metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties. Of a total of 377 patients who underwent resurfacing arthroplasty, 13 required revision; for fracture of the femoral neck in eight, loosening of a component in three and for other reasons in two. None of these cases had shown histological evidence of osteonecrosis in the femoral bone at the time of the initial implantation.

Bone from the remnant of the femoral head showed changes of osteonecrosis in all but one case at revision. In two cases of fracture which occurred within a week of implantation, the changes were compatible with early necrosis of the edge of the fracture. In the remaining six fractures, there were changes of established osteonecrosis. In all but one of the non-fracture cases, patchy osteonecrosis was seen.

We conclude that histological evidence of osteonecrosis is a common finding in failed resurfaced hips. Given that osteonecrosis is extensive in resurfaced femoral heads which fail by fracture, it is likely to play a role in the causation of these fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1125 - 1129
1 Nov 2001
Dawson J Fitzpatrick R Frost S Gundle R McLardy-Smith P Murray D

The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a patient-based instrument for assessment of outcome which is often used after total hip replacement, and the EuroQol 5D (EQ5D) is a patient-based generic questionnaire for health assessment. In an analysis of the outcome at one year of 609 revision hip replacements (RHRs), we compared the OHS and EQ5D scores, postoperative patient satisfaction and change in pain. About 25% of the operations were repeat RHRs. At one year, 57% of patients were very pleased with their operation. The correlation between preoperative and postoperative scores and change scores for the OHS and EQ5D was high. For both instruments the effect sizes were large, but the greater effect size of the OHS suggests that it is particularly sensitive to improvements after RHR. The effect scores of the OHS declined with the number of previous RHRs, while those for the EQ5D seemed less sensitive. Our results confirm the value of the OHS in assessing outcome after RHR.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 6 | Pages 892 - 900
1 Aug 2000
Neale SD Fujikawa Y Sabokbar A Gundle R Murray DW Graves SE Howie DW Athanasou NA

Mononuclear osteoclast precursors are present in the wear-particle-associated macrophage infiltrate found in the membrane surrounding loose implants. These cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclastic bone-resorbing cells when co-cultured with the rat osteoblast-like cell line, UMR 106, in the presence of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3. In order to develop an in vitro model of osteoclast differentiation which more closely parallels the cellular microenvironment at the bone-implant interface in situ, we determined whether osteoblast-like human bone-derived cells were capable of supporting the differentiation of osteoclasts from arthroplasty-derived cells and analysed the humoral conditions required for this to occur.

Long-term co-culture of arthroplasty-derived cells and human trabecular-bone-derived cells (HBDCs) resulted in the formation of numerous tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase (TRAP) and vitronectin-receptor (VNR)-positive multinucleated cells capable of extensive resorption of lacunar bone. The addition of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 was not required for the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. During the formation there was release of substantial levels of M-CSF and PGE2. Exogenous PGE2 (10−8 to 10−6M) was found to stimulate strongly the resorption of osteoclastic bone. Our study has shown that HBDCs are capable of supporting the formation of osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocyte precursors present in the periprosthetic tissues surrounding a loose implant. The release of M-CSF and PGE2 by activated cells at the bone-implant interface may be important for the formation of osteoclasts at sites of pathological bone resorption associated with aseptic loosening.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 5 | Pages 789 - 792
1 Sep 1994
Gargan M Gundle R Simpson A

Osteotomy has been used in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric hip fractures in an attempt to increase the stability of the fracture fragments. We have assessed this stability in a randomised prospective trial on 100 consecutive patients, all having fixation by an AO dynamic hip screw, comparing anatomical reduction with two types of osteotomy. The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, mental test score, and fracture configuration. There were more failures of fixation in the osteotomy groups, and the operations took longer. We found no clear benefit from osteotomy and therefore recommend anatomical reduction and fixation by a sliding hip screw in most cases. Rarely, a fracture configuration which does not allow load-sharing between the fracture fragments and the device may benefit from an osteotomy or the use of an alternative implant.