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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 6 | Pages 340 - 347
1 Jun 2021
Jenkinson MRJ Meek RMD Tate R MacMillan S Grant MH Currie S

Elevated levels of circulating cobalt ions have been linked with a wide range of systemic complications including neurological, endocrine, and cardiovascular symptoms. Case reports of patients with elevated blood cobalt ions have described significant cardiovascular complications including cardiomyopathy. However, correlation between the actual level of circulating cobalt and extent of cardiovascular injury has not previously been performed. This review examines evidence from the literature for a link between elevated blood cobalt levels secondary to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties and cardiomyopathy. Correlation between low, moderate, and high blood cobalt with cardiovascular complications has been considered. Elevated blood cobalt at levels over 250 µg/l have been shown to be a risk factor for developing systemic complications and published case reports document cardiomyopathy, cardiac transplantation, and death in patients with severely elevated blood cobalt ions. However, it is not clear that there is a hard cut-off value and cardiac dysfunction may occur at lower levels. Clinical and laboratory research has found conflicting evidence of cobalt-induced cardiomyopathy in patients with MoM hips. Further work needs to be done to clarify the link between severely elevated blood cobalt ions and cardiomyopathy.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(6):340–347.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 283 - 288
1 Feb 2015
Gupta S Maclean M Anderson JG MacGregor SJ Meek RMD Grant MH

High-intensity narrow-spectrum (HINS) light is a novel violet-blue light inactivation technology which kills bacteria through a photodynamic process, and has been shown to have bactericidal activity against a wide range of species. Specimens from patients with infected hip and knee arthroplasties were collected over a one-year period (1 May 2009 to 30 April 2010). A range of these microbial isolates were tested for sensitivity to HINS-light. During testing, suspensions of the pathogens were exposed to increasing doses of HINS-light (of 123mW/cm2 irradiance). Non-light exposed control samples were also used. The samples were then plated onto agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours before enumeration. Complete inactivation (greater than 4-log10 reduction) was achieved for all of the isolates. The typical inactivation curve showed a slow initial reaction followed by a rapid period of inactivation. The doses of HINS-light required ranged between 118 and 2214 J/cm2. Gram-positive bacteria were generally found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative.

As HINS-light uses visible wavelengths, it can be safely used in the presence of patients and staff. This unique feature could lead to its possible use in the prevention of infection during surgery and post-operative dressing changes.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:283–8.