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The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 3 | Pages 346 - 348
1 Mar 2007
Danaviah S Govender S Gordon ML Cassol S

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections pose a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report two cases of such infection of the spine in HIV-negative patients who presented with deformity and neurological deficit. The histopathological features in both specimens were diagnostic of tuberculosis. The isolates were identified as Mycobacterium intracellulare and M. fortuitum by genotyping (MicroSeq 16S rDNA Full Gene assay) and as M. tuberculosis and a mycobacterium other than tuberculosis, respectively, by culture. There is a growing need for molecular diagnostic tools that can differentiate accurately between M. tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria, especially in regions of the developing world which are experiencing an increase in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1454 - 1458
1 Nov 2005
Govender S

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 6 | Pages 875 - 878
1 Aug 2003
Govender S Vlok GJ Fisher-Jeffes N Du Preez CP

We present four patients who had sustained a traumatic dislocation of the atlanto-occipital joint. The diagnosis was initially missed in two patients. One patient, who was neurologically intact, was treated non-operatively. The remaining three recovered neurologically after an occipitocervical fusion. Early recognition of the injury, especially in multiply-injured patients with head injuries, and timely management may improve survival and neurological recovery.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 5 | Pages 727 - 731
1 Jul 2002
Govender S Kumar KPS

We present seven children with atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) of more than three months’ duration after an injury to the upper cervical spine. The deformity was irreducible by skull traction. MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of the vertebral arteries were performed in four children. The patients were neurologically intact. Thrombosis of the ipsilateral vertebral artery was noted in two patients. The deformity was gradually corrected and stabilised after transoral release of the atlantoaxial complex, skull traction and posterior atlantoaxial fusion. Soft-tissue interposition and contractures within the atlantoaxial complex prevented closed reduction. MRI and MRA of the vertebral arteries were useful in elucidating the pathology of chronic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 6 | Pages 864 - 867
1 Aug 2001
Govender S Parbhoo AH Kumar KPS Annamalai K

A total of 39 HIV-infected adults with spinal tuberculosis underwent anterior spinal decompression for neurological deficit. Fresh-frozen allografts were used in 38 patients. Antituberculous drugs were prescribed for 18 months, but antiretroviral therapy was not used. Six patients died within two years of surgery. Neurological recovery and allograft incorporation were observed at follow-up at a mean of 38 months, although the CD4/CD8 ratios were reversed in all patients. Adequate preoperative nutritional support and compliance with antituberculous treatment are essential in ensuring a satisfactory outcome.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1143 - 1147
1 Nov 2000
Govender S Maharaj JF Haffajee MR

We treated 183 patients with fractures of the odontoid process (109 type II, 74 type III) non-operatively. Union was achieved in 59 (54%) with type-II fractures. All type-III fractures united, but in 16 patients union was delayed. There was no correlation between union and the clinical or radiological outcome of the fractures. Selective vertebral angiography, carried out in 18 patients ten with acute fractures and eight with nonunion, showed that the blood supply to the odontoid process was not disrupted. Studies on ten adult axis vertebrae at post-mortem showed that the difference in the surface area between type-II and type-III fractures was statistically significant. Our findings show that an age of more than 40 years, anterior displacement of more than 4 mm, posterior displacement and late presentation contribute towards nonunion of type-II fractures.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 4 | Pages 667 - 669
1 Jul 1999
Govender S Parbhoo AH

We report two cases of vertebral osteochondroma. In one patient a solitary cervical lesion presented as entrapment neuropathy of the ulnar nerve and in the other as a thoracic tumour associated with hereditary multiple exostoses producing paraplegia. We highlight the importance of an adequate preoperative evaluation in such patients.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 3 | Pages 459 - 461
1 May 1999
Govender S Mutasa E Parbhoo AH

We have treated seven patients with cryptococcal spondylitis. Five presented with a neurological deficit and one was HIV-positive. Amphotericin-B and 5-flucytosine were used in five patients and ketoconazole was given orally in the remaining two. Three patients made a complete neurological recovery. Since these lesions mimic spinal tuberculosis, which is commonly seen in our environment, we draw attention to the importance of obtaining a tissue diagnosis.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 81-B, Issue 1 | Pages 106 - 109
1 Jan 1999
Govender S Parbhoo AH

Fresh-frozen allografts from the humerus were used to help to stabilise the spine after anterior decompression for tuberculosis in 47 children with a mean age of 4.2 years (2 to 9). The average angle of the gibbus, before operation, was 53°; at follow-up, two years later, it was 15°. Rejection of the graft or deep sepsis was not seen. Cross trabeculation between the allograft and the vertebral body was observed at six months, with remodelling occurring at approximately 30 months.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 76-B, Issue 1 | Pages 113 - 117
1 Jan 1994
Rasool M Govender S Naidoo K

We treated 13 children with histologically confirmed cystic tuberculosis of bone. Ten had solitary cystic lesions and three had the multicystic form. Signs and symptoms were related mainly to the joint adjacent to the cyst. Most lesions were in the metaphyses of long bones. They were radiolucent, round or oval, and resembled pyogenic infections, aneurysmal and simple bone cysts, cartilaginous tumours or osteoid osteoma. Only two of the children had pulmonary tuberculosis. The Mantoux skin test was negative in four children and the ESR was normal in five. Curettage followed by anti-tuberculosis therapy for one year resulted in good healing, but two children had residual joint contractures. Biopsy should be taken from the cystic area rather than from the synovium when a joint is involved.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 74-B, Issue 4 | Pages 575 - 578
1 Jul 1992
Craig J Govender S

Eight patients with neurofibromatosis presented with symptoms of cervical spine involvement over a period of 17 years, five of them within the second decade of life. The symptoms included neurological deficit in five, a neck mass in four, and deformity in three; only two complained of pain. Osteolysis of vertebral bodies with kyphosis of more than 90 degrees was the most common radiological feature. Posterior fusion failed in the one patient in whom it was performed. Good results were achieved by anterior fusion, alone, or combined with posterior fusion. Surgical complications included one death in a patient with a malignant neurofibroma, and one case of transient neurological deterioration.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 72-B, Issue 3 | Pages 504 - 506
1 May 1990
Govender S Chotai P

We reviewed 16 patients with salmonella osteitis or septic arthritis. All patients were immunologically normal and none had a history of typhoid fever. We discuss the importance of obtaining a bacteriological diagnosis and provide guidelines on the duration of antibiotic treatment.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 5 | Pages 752 - 755
1 Nov 1989
Rasool M Govender S

In a retrospective review of 302 clinically suspected cases of congenital syphilis, bone changes were found in 197. The skeletal manifestations were periostitis (102 cases), osteitis (20), and metaphyseal changes (71). Combinations of more than one lesion were found in 61. Pseudoparalysis was a presenting sign in 34 infants; 12 of these were found to have had pathological fractures and four had dactylitis. Complete radiological healing without residual changes was seen in all 59 cases that were recalled for review. The orthopaedic surgeon should consider the diagnosis of congenital syphilis when destructive lesions of bone are seen in an infant.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 71-B, Issue 1 | Pages 81 - 84
1 Jan 1989
Charles R Govender S

The anterior exposure of the upper thoracic spine using standard methods is often difficult and limited. We report our experience using a technique described by Sundaresan et al. (1984) in which the medial portion of one clavicle and part of the manubrium sterni are excised. In 10 cases we found this to be a useful and safe procedure.