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Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 13, Issue 3 | Pages 127 - 135
22 Mar 2024
Puetzler J Vallejo Diaz A Gosheger G Schulze M Arens D Zeiter S Siverino C Richards RG Moriarty TF


Fracture-related infection (FRI) is commonly classified based on the time of onset of symptoms. Early infections (< two weeks) are treated with debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR). For late infections (> ten weeks), guidelines recommend implant removal due to tolerant biofilms. For delayed infections (two to ten weeks), recommendations are unclear. In this study we compared infection clearance and bone healing in early and delayed FRI treated with DAIR in a rabbit model.


Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into a humeral osteotomy in 17 rabbits after plate osteosynthesis. Infection developed for one week (early group, n = 6) or four weeks (delayed group, n = 6) before DAIR (systemic antibiotics: two weeks, nafcillin + rifampin; four weeks, levofloxacin + rifampin). A control group (n = 5) received revision surgery after four weeks without antibiotics. Bacteriology of humerus, soft-tissue, and implants was performed seven weeks after revision surgery. Bone healing was assessed using a modified radiological union scale in tibial fractures (mRUST).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 106-B, Issue 3 | Pages 293 - 302
1 Mar 2024
Vogt B Lueckingsmeier M Gosheger G Laufer A Toporowski G Antfang C Roedl R Frommer A


As an alternative to external fixators, intramedullary lengthening nails (ILNs) can be employed for distraction osteogenesis. While previous studies have demonstrated that typical complications of external devices, such as soft-tissue tethering, and pin site infection can be avoided with ILNs, there is a lack of studies that exclusively investigated tibial distraction osteogenesis with motorized ILNs inserted via an antegrade approach.


A total of 58 patients (median age 17 years (interquartile range (IQR) 15 to 21)) treated by unilateral tibial distraction osteogenesis for a median leg length discrepancy of 41 mm (IQR 34 to 53), and nine patients with disproportionate short stature treated by bilateral simultaneous tibial distraction osteogenesis, with magnetically controlled motorized ILNs inserted via an antegrade approach, were retrospectively analyzed. The median follow-up was 37 months (IQR 30 to 51). Outcome measurements were accuracy, precision, reliability, bone healing, complications, and patient-reported outcome assessed by the Limb Deformity-Scoliosis Research Society Score (LD-SRS-30).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 3 | Pages 331 - 340
1 Mar 2023
Vogt B Toporowski G Gosheger G Laufer A Frommer A Kleine-Koenig M Roedl R Antfang C


Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis (HED) is applied to children and adolescents to correct angular deformities (ADs) in long bones through guided growth. Traditional Blount staples or two-hole plates are mainly used for this indication. Despite precise surgical techniques and attentive postoperative follow-up, implant-associated complications are frequently described. To address these pitfalls, a flexible staple was developed to combine the advantages of the established implants. This study provides the first results of guided growth using the new implant and compares these with the established two-hole plates and Blount staples.


Between January 2013 and December 2016, 138 patients (22 children, 116 adolescents) with genu valgum or genu varum were treated with 285 flexible staples. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. These results were compared with 98 patients treated with 205 two-hole plates and 92 patients treated with 535 Blount staples. In long-standing anteroposterior radiographs, mechanical axis deviations (MADs) were measured before and during treatment to analyze treatment efficiency. The evaluation of the new flexible staple was performed according to the idea, development, evaluation, assessment, long-term (IDEAL) study framework (Stage 2a).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 1 | Pages 88 - 96
1 Jan 2023
Vogt B Rupp C Gosheger G Eveslage M Laufer A Toporowski G Roedl R Frommer A


Distraction osteogenesis with intramedullary lengthening devices has undergone rapid development in the past decade with implant enhancement. In this first single-centre matched-pair analysis we focus on the comparison of treatment with the PRECICE and STRYDE intramedullary lengthening devices and aim to clarify any clinical and radiological differences.


A single-centre 2:1 matched-pair retrospective analysis of 42 patients treated with the STRYDE and 82 patients treated with the PRECICE nail between May 2013 and November 2020 was conducted. Clinical and lengthening parameters were compared while focusing radiological assessment on osseous alterations related to the nail’s telescopic junction and locking bolts at four different stages.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 2 | Pages 290 - 296
1 Feb 2022
Gosheger G Ahrens H Dreher P Schneider KN Deventer N Budny T Heitkötter B Schulze M Theil C


Iliosacral sarcoma resections have been shown to have high rates of local recurrence (LR) and poor overall survival. There is also no universal classification for the resection of pelvic sarcomas invading the sacrum. This study proposes a novel classification system and analyzes the survival and risk of recurrence, when using this system.


This is a retrospective analysis of 151 patients (with median follow-up in survivors of 44 months (interquartile range 12 to 77)) who underwent hemipelvectomy with iliosacral resection at a single centre between 2007 and 2019. The proposed classification differentiates the extent of iliosacral resection and defines types S1 to S6 (S1 resection medial and parallel to the sacroiliac joint, S2 resection through the ipsilateral sacral lateral mass to the neuroforamina, S3 resection through the ipsilateral neuroforamina, S4 resection through ipsilateral the spinal canal, and S5 and S6 contralateral sacral resections). Descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used for categorical variables, and the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1428 - 1437
2 Aug 2021
Vogt B Roedl R Gosheger G Frommer A Laufer A Kleine-Koenig M Theil C Toporowski G


Temporary epiphysiodesis (ED) is commonly applied in children and adolescents to treat leg length discrepancies (LLDs) and tall stature. Traditional Blount staples or modern two-hole plates are used in clinical practice. However, they require accurate planning, precise surgical techniques, and attentive follow-up to achieve the desired outcome without complications. This study reports the results of ED using a novel rigid staple (RigidTack) incorporating safety, as well as technical and procedural success according to the idea, development, evaluation, assessment, long-term (IDEAL) study framework.


A cohort of 56 patients, including 45 unilateral EDs for LLD and 11 bilateral EDs for tall stature, were prospectively analyzed. ED was performed with 222 rigid staples with a mean follow-up of 24.4 months (8 to 49). Patients with a predicted LLD of ≥ 2 cm at skeletal maturity were included. Mean age at surgery was 12.1 years (8 to 14). Correction and complication rates including implant-associated problems, and secondary deformities as well as perioperative parameters, were recorded (IDEAL stage 2a). These results were compared to historical cohorts treated for correction of LLD with two-hole plates or Blount staples.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 10, Issue 7 | Pages 425 - 436
16 Jul 2021
Frommer A Roedl R Gosheger G Hasselmann J Fuest C Toporowski G Laufer A Tretow H Schulze M Vogt B


This study aims to enhance understanding of clinical and radiological consequences and involved mechanisms that led to corrosion of the Precice Stryde (Stryde) intramedullary lengthening nail in the post market surveillance era of the device. Between 2018 and 2021 more than 2,000 Stryde nails have been implanted worldwide. However, the outcome of treatment with the Stryde system is insufficiently reported.


This is a retrospective single-centre study analyzing outcome of 57 consecutive lengthening procedures performed with the Stryde nail at the authors’ institution from February 2019 until November 2020. Macro- and microscopic metallographic analysis of four retrieved nails was conducted. To investigate observed corrosion at telescoping junction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were performed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 9 | Pages 1248 - 1255
1 Sep 2020
Laufer A Frommer A Gosheger G Roedl R Broeking JN Toporowski G Rachbauer AM Vogt B


The treatment of tibial aplasia is controversial. Amputation represents the gold standard with good functional results, but is frequently refused by the families. In these patients, treatment with reconstructive limb salvage can be considered. Due to the complexity of the deformity, this remains challenging and should be staged. The present study evaluated the role of femoro-pedal distraction using a circular external fixator in reconstructive treatment of tibial aplasia. The purpose of femoro-pedal distraction is to realign the limb and achieve soft tissue lengthening to allow subsequent reconstructive surgery.


This was a retrospective study involving ten patients (12 limbs) with tibial aplasia, who underwent staged reconstruction. During the first operation a circular hexapod external fixator was applied and femoro-pedal distraction was undertaken over several months. Subsequent surgery included reconstruction of the knee joint and alignment of the foot.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 101-B, Issue 5 | Pages 589 - 595
1 May 2019
Theil C Schmidt-Braekling T Gosheger G Idelevich EA Moellenbeck B Dieckmann R


Fungal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare and account for about 1% of total PJIs. Our aim was to present clinical and microbiological results in treating these patients with a two-stage approach and antifungal spacers.

Patients and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database and identified 26 patients with positive fungal cultures and positive Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for PJI who were treated between 2009 and 2017. We identified 18 patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) and eight patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The surgical and antifungal treatment, clinical and demographic patient data, complications, relapses, and survival were recorded and analyzed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 1 | Pages 71 - 75
1 Jan 2015
Hoell S Borgers L Gosheger G Dieckmann R Schulz D Gerss J Hardes J

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) could be used to identify the persistence of infection after the first stage of a two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infection.

Between 2010 and 2011, we prospectively studied 55 patients (23 men, 32 women; mean age 69.5 years; 36 to 86) with a periprosthetic joint infection. Bacteria were identified in two intra-operative tissue samples during re-implantation in 16 patients. These cases were classified as representing persistent infection.

To calculate a precise cut-off value which could be used in everyday clinical practice, a 3 x 2 contingency table was constructed and manually defined.

We found that a serum IL-6 ≥ 13 pg/mL can be regarded as indicating infection: its positive-predictive value is 90.9%. A serum IL-6 ≤ 8 pg/mL can be regarded as indicating an absence of infection: its negative predictive value is 92.1%.

The serum IL-6 level seems to be a reasonable marker for identifying persistent infection after the first stage of a revision joint arthroplasty and before attempting re-implantation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:71–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1425 - 1431
1 Oct 2013
Hardes J Henrichs MP Gosheger G Gebert C Höll S Dieckmann R Hauschild G Streitbürger A

We evaluated the clinical results and complications after extra-articular resection of the distal femur and/or proximal tibia and reconstruction with a tumour endoprosthesis (MUTARS) in 59 patients (mean age 33 years (11 to 74)) with malignant bone or soft-tissue tumours. According to a Kaplan–Meier analysis, limb survival was 76% (95% confidence interval (CI) 64.1 to 88.5) after a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (one month to 17 years). Peri-prosthetic infection was the most common indication for subsequent amputation (eight patients). Survival of the prosthesis without revision was 48% (95% CI 34.8 to 62.0) at two years and 25% (95% CI 11.1 to 39.9) at five years post-operatively. Failure of the prosthesis was due to deep infection in 22 patients (37%), aseptic loosening in ten patients (17%), and peri-prosthetic fracture in six patients (10%). Wear of the bearings made a minor revision necessary in 12 patients (20%). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 23 (10 to 29). An extensor lag > 10° was noted in ten patients (17%).

These results suggest that limb salvage after extra-articular resection with a tumour prosthesis can achieve good functional results in most patients, although the rates of complications and subsequent amputation are higher than in patients treated with intra-articular resection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1425–31.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1410 - 1416
1 Oct 2013
Gebert C Wessling M Gosheger G Aach M Streitbürger A Henrichs MP Dirksen U Hardes J

To date, all surgical techniques used for reconstruction of the pelvic ring following supra-acetabular tumour resection produce high complication rates. We evaluated the clinical, oncological and functional outcomes of a cohort of 35 patients (15 men and 20 women), including 21 Ewing’s sarcomas, six chondrosarcomas, three sarcomas not otherwise specified, one osteosarcoma, two osseous malignant fibrous histiocytomas, one synovial cell sarcoma and one metastasis. The mean age of the patients was 31 years (8 to 79) and the latest follow-up was carried out at a mean of 46 months (1.9 to 139.5) post-operatively.

We undertook a functional reconstruction of the pelvic ring using polyaxial screws and titanium rods. In 31 patients (89%) the construct was encased in antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate. Preservation of the extremities was possible for all patients. The survival rate at three years was 93.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77.9 to 98.4), at five years it was 82.4% (95% CI 57.6 to 93.4). For the 21 patients with Ewing’s sarcoma it was 95.2% (95% CI 70.7 to 99.3) and 81.5% (95% CI 52.0 to 93.8), respectively. Wound healing problems were observed in eight patients, deep infection in five and clinically asymptomatic breakage of the screws in six. The five-year implant survival was 93.3% (95% CI 57.8 to 95.7). Patients were mobilised at a mean of 3.5 weeks (1 to 7) post-operatively. A post-operative neurological defect occurred in 12 patients. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score at last available follow-up was 21.2 (10 to 27).

This reconstruction technique is characterised by simple and oncologically appropriate applicability, achieving high primary stability that allows early mobilisation, good functional results and relatively low complication rates.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1410–16.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 94-B, Issue 1 | Pages 122 - 127
1 Jan 2012
Streitbuerger A Ahrens H Gosheger G Henrichs M Balke M Dieckmann R Hardes J

The aim of this study was to define the treatment criteria for patients with recurrent chondrosarcoma. We reviewed the data of 77 patients to examine the influence of factors such as the intention of treatment (curative/palliative), extent of surgery, resection margins, status of disease at the time of local recurrence and the grade of the tumour. A total of 70 patients underwent surgery for recurrent chondrosarcoma. In seven patients surgery was not a viable option. Metastatic disease occurred in 41 patients, appearing synchronously with the local recurrence in 56% of cases. For patients without metastasis at the time of local recurrence, the overall survival at a mean follow-up after recurrence of 67 months (0 to 289) was 74% (5 of 27) compared with 19% (13 of 50) for patients with metastasis at or before the development of the recurrence. Neither the type/extent of surgery, site of tumour, nor the resection margins for the recurrent tumour significantly influenced the overall survival.

With limited survival for patients with metastatic disease at the time of local recurrence (0% for patients with grade III and de-differentiated chondrosarcoma), palliative treatment, including local radiation therapy and debulking procedures, should be discussed with the patients to avoid long hospitalisation and functional deficits. For patients without metastasis at the time of local recurrence, the overall survival of 74% justifies an aggressive approach including wide resection margins and extensive reconstruction.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1545 - 1549
1 Nov 2011
Hoell S Butschek S Gosheger G Dedy N Dieckmann R Henrichs M Daniilidis K Hardes J

There has been a substantial increase in the number of hip and knee prostheses implanted in recent years, with a consequent increase in the number of revisions required. Total femur replacement (TFR) following destruction of the entire femur, usually after several previous revision operations, is a rare procedure but is the only way of avoiding amputation. Intramedullary femur replacement (IFR) with preservation of the femoral diaphysis is a modification of TFR. Between 1999 and 2010, 27 patients with non-oncological conditions underwent surgery in our department with either IFR (n = 15) or TFR (n = 12) and were included in this study retrospectively. The aim of the study was to assess the indications, complications and outcomes of IFR and TFR in revision cases. The mean follow-up period was 31.3 months (6 to 90). Complications developed in 37% of cases, 33% in the IFR group and 4% in the TFR group. Despite a trend towards a slightly better functional outcome compared with TFR, the indication for intramedullary femur replacement should be established on a very strict basis in view of the procedure’s much higher complication rate.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1117 - 1122
1 Aug 2005
Fuchs S Heyse T Rudofsky G Gosheger G Chylarecki C

There is a high risk of venous thromboembolism when patients are immobilised following trauma. The combination of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) with graduated compression stockings is frequently used in orthopaedic surgery to try and prevent this, but a relatively high incidence of thromboembolic events remains. Mechanical devices which perform continuous passive motion imitate contractions and increase the volume and velocity of venous flow.

In this study 227 trauma patients were randomised to receive either treatment with the Arthroflow device and LMWH or only with the latter. The Arthroflow device passively extends and plantarflexes the feet. Patients were assessed initially by venous-occlusion plethysmography, compression ultrasonography and continuous wave Doppler, which were repeated weekly without knowledge of the category of randomisation. Those who showed evidence of deep-vein thrombosis underwent venography for confirmation. The incidence of deep-vein thrombosis was 25% in the LMWH group compared with 3.6% in those who had additional treatment with the Arthroflow device (p < 0.001). There were no substantial complications or problems of non-compliance with the Arthroflow device. Logistic regression analysis of the risk factors of deep-vein thrombosis showed high odds ratios for operation (4.1), immobilisation (4.3), older than 40 years of age (2.8) and obesity (2.2).

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 87-B, Issue 3 | Pages 395 - 400
1 Mar 2005
Hardes J Gosheger G Vachtsevanos L Hoffmann C Ahrens H Winkelmann W

Type BI rotationplasty is currently indicated for children with tumours of the proximal femur whereas type BIIIa rotationplasty is reserved for those in which the entire femur has to be removed. Our aim was to compare these two types of rotationplasty and determine whether the knee should be preserved in children with tumours of the proximal femur. We compared the post-operative complications, oncological outcome, range of movement, Enneking score and radiographs of six children, who had undergone type BI rotationplasty with those of 12 who had undergone type BIIIa rotationplasty.

Patients with type BI rotationplasty had a mean Enneking score of 21.6 compared with 24.4 in those with type BIIIa rotationplasty, and worse mean results in all of the parameters investigated. We conclude that type BI rotationplasty has a worse functional outcome and more complications than type BIIIa rotationplasty in children under the age of ten years.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 85-B, Issue 8 | Pages 1161 - 1165
1 Nov 2003
Bottner F Rodl R Kordish I Winkelmann W Gosheger G Lindner N

Our aim was to investigate the outcome of excision of osteochondromas. Between 1994 and 1998, 92 symptomatic osteochondromas in 86 patients were excised. There were 40 women and 46 men with a mean age of 20 years (3 to 62). Of these, 56 had a solitary osteochondroma and 30 had multiple hereditary tumours. The presenting symptoms were pain (79.1%), swelling (23.3%), reduced range of movement (19.8%), cosmetic abnormalities (17.4%), and bursitis (12.8%). The most common site (37.6%) was around the knee.

Four patients had major complications (4.7%) including one intra-operative fracture of the femoral neck and three nerve palsies which resolved after decompression. Six patients had minor complications. Overall, 93.4% of the preoperative symptoms resolved after excision of the tumours. Excision is a successful form of treatment for symptomatic osteochondromas with a low morbidity.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 84-B, Issue 7 | Pages 1004 - 1008
1 Sep 2002
Rödl RW Gosheger G Gebert C Lindner N Ozaki T Winkelmann W

In 45 patients we assessed the functional results and complications for three different reconstructive procedures after resection of primary tumors of the proximal humerus. An osteoarticular allograft was used in 11, a clavicula pro humero operation in 15 and a tumour prosthesis in 19. The glenoid was resected with the proximal humerus in 25 patients. The axillary nerve was resected in 42 patients.

The complication rate was lowest after reconstruction with a tumour prosthesis. The clavicula pro humero operation resulted in the most revisions. Cumulative survival rates for all the reconstructive procedures were similar.

At follow-up at two years the functional results for the three reconstructive procedures were the same with a mean functional rating of 79% (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). Excision of the glenoid had no influence on the functional result.

Our findings indicate that the use of a tumour prosthesis is the most reliable limb-salvage procedure for the proximal humerus. The clavicula pro humero is an appropriate procedure if a prosthesis cannot be used.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 83-B, Issue 3 | Pages 391 - 396
1 Apr 2001
Lindner NJ Ozaki T Roedl R Gosheger G Winkelmann W Wörtler K

We treated 58 patients with osteoid osteoma by CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RF). In 16 it followed one or two unsuccessful open procedures. It was performed under general anaesthesia in 48, and spinal anaesthesia in ten. The nidus was first located by thin-cut CT (2 to 3 mm) sections. In hard bony areas a 2 mm coaxial drill system was applied. In softer areas an 11-gauge Jamshidi needle was inserted to allow the passage of a 1 mm RF probe into the centre of the nidus. RF ablation was administered at 90°C for a period of four to five minutes.

Three patients had recurrence of pain three, five and seven months after treatment, respectively, and a second percutaneous procedure was successful. Thus, the primary rate of success for all patients was 95% and the secondary rate was 100%. One minor complication was encountered.

CT-guided RF ablation is a safe, simple and effective method of treatment for osteoid osteoma.