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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 3 | Pages 294 - 300
1 Mar 2023
Sangaletti R Zanna L Akkaya M Sandiford N Ekhtiari S Gehrke T Citak M


Despite numerous studies focusing on periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), there are no robust data on the risk factors and timing of metachronous infections. Metachronous PJIs are PJIs that can arise in the same or other artificial joints after a period of time, in patients who have previously had PJI.


Between January 2010 and December 2018, 661 patients with multiple joint prostheses in situ were treated for PJI at our institution. Of these, 73 patients (11%) developed a metachronous PJI (periprosthetic infection in patients who have previously had PJI in another joint, after a lag period) after a mean time interval of 49.5 months (SD 30.24; 7 to 82.9). To identify patient-related risk factors for a metachronous PJI, the following parameters were analyzed: sex; age; BMI; and pre-existing comorbidity. Metachronous infections were divided into three groups: Group 1, metachronous infections in ipsilateral joints; Group 2, metachronous infections of the contralateral lower limb; and Group 3, metachronous infections of the lower and upper limb.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 3 | Pages 386 - 393
1 Mar 2022
Neufeld ME Liechti EF Soto F Linke P Busch S Gehrke T Citak M


The outcome of repeat septic revision after a failed one-stage exchange for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to report the infection-free and all-cause revision-free survival of repeat septic revision after a failed one-stage exchange, and to determine whether the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) stage is associated with subsequent infection-related failure.


We retrospectively reviewed all repeat septic revision TKAs which were undertaken after a failed one-stage exchange between 2004 and 2017. A total of 33 repeat septic revisions (29 one-stage and four two-stage) met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up from repeat septic revision was 68.2 months (8.0 months to 16.1 years). The proportion of patients who had a subsequent infection-related failure and all-cause revision was reported and Kaplan-Meier survival for these endpoints was determined. Patients were categorized according to the MSIS staging system, and the association with subsequent infection was analyzed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 1 | Pages 27 - 33
1 Jan 2022
Liechti EF Neufeld ME Soto F Linke P Busch S Gehrke T Citak M


One-stage exchange for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is gaining popularity. The outcome for a repeat one-stage revision THA after a failed one-stage exchange for infection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to report the infection-free and all-cause revision-free survival of repeat one-stage exchange, and to investigate the association between the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) staging system and further infection-related failure.


We retrospectively reviewed all repeat one-stage revision THAs performed after failed one-stage exchange THA for infection between January 2008 and December 2016. The final cohort included 32 patients. The mean follow-up after repeat one-stage exchange was 5.3 years (1.2 to 13.0). The patients with a further infection-related failure and/or all-cause revision were reported, and Kaplan-Meier survival for these endpoints determined. Patients were categorized according to the MSIS system, and its association with further infection was analyzed.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1678 - 1685
1 Nov 2021
Abdelaziz H Schröder M Shum Tien C Ibrahim K Gehrke T Salber J Citak M


One-stage revision hip arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has several advantages; however, resection of the proximal femur might be necessary to achieve higher success rates. We investigated the risk factors for resection and re-revisions, and assessed complications and subsequent re-revisions.


In this single-centre, case-control study, 57 patients who underwent one-stage revision arthroplasty for PJI of the hip and required resection of the proximal femur between 2009 and 2018 were identified. The control group consisted of 57 patients undergoing one-stage revision without bony resection. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify any correlation with resection and the risk factors for re-revisions. Rates of all-causes re-revision, reinfection, and instability were compared between groups.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4_Supple_B | Pages 3 - 10
1 Apr 2017
Parvizi J Shohat N Gehrke T

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection. The WHO guidelines, if implemented worldwide, could have an immense impact on our practices and those of the CDC have implications for healthcare policy in the United States.

Our aim was to review the strategies for prevention of periprosthetic joint infection in light of these and other recent guidelines.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B(4 Supple B):3–10.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 4_Supple_B | Pages 1 - 2
1 Apr 2017
Manktelow ARJ Gehrke T Haddad FS

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 6, Issue 1 | Pages 52 - 56
1 Jan 2017
Hothi HS Kendoff D Lausmann C Henckel J Gehrke T Skinner J Hart A


Mechanical wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) (trunnionosis) have been implicated in their early revision, most commonly in metal-on-metal (MOM) hips. We can isolate the role of the head-stem junction as the predominant source of metal release by investigating non-MOM hips; this can help to identify clinically significant volumes of material loss and corrosion from these surfaces.


In this study we examined a series of 94 retrieved metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips for evidence of corrosion and material loss at the taper junction using a well published visual grading method and an established roundness-measuring machine protocol. Hips were retrieved from 74 male and 20 female patients with a median age of 57 years (30 to 76) and a median time to revision of 215 months (2 to 324). The reasons for revision were loosening of both the acetabular component and the stem (n = 29), loosening of the acetabular component (n = 58) and infection (n = 7). No adverse tissue reactions were reported by the revision surgeons.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10_Supple_A | Pages 20 - 29
1 Oct 2015
Gehrke T Alijanipour P Parvizi J

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most feared and challenging complications following total knee arthroplasty. We provide a detailed description of our current understanding regarding the management of PJI of the knee, including diagnostic aids, pre-operative planning, surgical treatment, and outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B(10 Suppl A):20–9.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 5 | Pages 649 - 653
1 May 2015
Hawi N Kendoff D Citak M Gehrke T Haasper C

Knee arthrodesis is a potential salvage procedure for limb preservation after failure of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to infection. In this study, we evaluated the outcome of single-stage knee arthrodesis using an intramedullary cemented coupled nail without bone-on-bone fusion after failed and infected TKA with extensor mechanism deficiency. Between 2002 and 2012, 27 patients (ten female, 17 male; mean age 68.8 years; 52 to 87) were treated with septic single-stage exchange. Mean follow-up duration was 67.1months (24 to 143, n = 27) (minimum follow-up 24 months) and for patients with a minimum follow-up of five years 104.9 (65 to 143,; n = 13). A subjective patient evaluation (Short Form (SF)-36) was obtained, in addition to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The mean VAS score was 1.44 (SD 1.48). At final follow-up, four patients had recurrent infections after arthrodesis (14.8%). Of these, three patients were treated with a one-stage arthrodesis nail exchange; one of the three patients had an aseptic loosening with a third single-stage exchange, and one patient underwent knee amputation for uncontrolled sepsis at 108 months. All patients, including the amputee, indicated that they would choose arthrodesis again. Data indicate that a single-stage knee arthrodesis offers an acceptable salvage procedure after failed and infected TKA.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:649–53.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 173 - 176
1 Feb 2015
Omar M Ettinger M Reichling M Petri M Guenther D Gehrke T Krettek C Mommsen P

The aim of this study was to assess the role of synovial C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of chronic periprosthetic hip infection. We prospectively collected synovial fluid from 89 patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty and measured synovial CRP, serum CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), synovial white blood cell (WBC) count and synovial percentages of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Patients were classified as septic or aseptic by means of clinical, microbiological, serum and synovial fluid findings. The high viscosity of the synovial fluid precluded the analyses in nine patients permitting the results in 80 patients to be studied. There was a significant difference in synovial CRP levels between the septic (n = 21) and the aseptic (n = 59) cohort. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, a synovial CRP threshold of 2.5 mg/l had a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 93.3%. The area under the curve was 0.96. Compared with serum CRP and ESR, synovial CRP showed a high diagnostic value. According to these preliminary results, synovial CRP may be a useful parameter in diagnosing chronic periprosthetic hip infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:173–6.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 93 - 95
1 Nov 2014
Gehrke T Kendoff D Haasper C

The use of hinged implants in primary total knee replacement (TKR) should be restricted to selected indications and mainly for elderly patients. Potential indications for a rotating hinge or pure hinge implant in primary TKR include: collateral ligament insufficiency, severe varus or valgus deformity (> 20°) with necessary relevant soft-tissue release, relevant bone loss including insertions of collateral ligaments, gross flexion-extension gap imbalance, ankylosis, or hyperlaxity. Although data reported in the literature are inconsistent, clinical results depend on implant design, proper technical use, and adequate indications. We present our experience with a specific implant type that we have used for over 30 years and which has given our elderly patients good mid-term results. Because revision of implants with long cemented stems can be very challenging, an effort should be made in the future to use shorter stems in modular versions of hinged implants.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B(11 Suppl A):93–5.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 4 | Pages 492 - 496
1 Apr 2014
Klatte TO Kendoff D Kamath AF Jonen V Rueger JM Frommelt L Gebauer M Gehrke T

Fungal peri-prosthetic infections of the knee and hip are rare but likely to result in devastating complications. In this study we evaluated the results of their management using a single-stage exchange technique. Between 2001 and 2011, 14 patients (ten hips, four knees) were treated for a peri-prosthetic fungal infection. One patient was excluded because revision surgery was not possible owing to a large acetabular defect. One patient developed a further infection two months post-operatively and was excluded from the analysis. Two patients died of unrelated causes.

After a mean of seven years (3 to 11) a total of ten patients were available for follow-up. One patient, undergoing revision replacement of the hip, had a post-operative dislocation. Another patient, undergoing revision replacement of the knee, developed a wound infection and required revision 29 months post-operatively following a peri-prosthetic femoral fracture.

The mean Harris hip score increased to 74 points (63 to 84; p < 0.02) in those undergoing revision replacement of the hip, and the mean Hospital for Special Surgery knee score increased to 75 points (70 to 80; p < 0.01) in those undergoing revision replacement of the knee.

A single-stage revision following fungal peri-prosthetic infection is feasible, with an acceptable rate of a satisfactory outcome.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:492–6.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1450 - 1452
1 Nov 2013
Parvizi J Gehrke T Chen AF

Louis Pasteur once said that: “Fortune favours the prepared mind.” As one of the great scientists who contributed to the fight against infection, he emphasised the importance of being prepared at all times to recognise infection and deal with it. Despite the many scientific discoveries and technological advances, such as the advent of antibiotics and the use of sterile techniques, infection continues to be a problem that haunts orthopaedic surgeons and inflicts suffering on patients.

The medical community has implemented many practices with the intention of preventing infection and treating it effectively when it occurs. Although high-level evidence may support some of these practices, many are based on little to no scientific foundation. Thus, around the world, there is great variation in practices for the prevention and management of periprosthetic joint infection.

This paper summaries the instigation, conduct and findings of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1450–2.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 92 - 94
1 Nov 2013
Gehrke T Gebauer M Kendoff D

Femoral revision after cemented total hip replacement (THR) might include technical difficulties, following essential cement removal, which might lead to further loss of bone and consequently inadequate fixation of the subsequent revision stem.

Femoral impaction allografting has been widely used in revision surgery for the acetabulum, and subsequently for the femur. In combination with a primary cemented stem, impaction grafting allows for femoral bone restoration through incorporation and remodelling of the impacted morsellized bone graft by the host skeleton. Cavitary bone defects affecting meta-physis and diaphysis leading to a wide femoral shaft, are ideal indications for this technique. Cancellous allograft bone chips of 1 mm to 2 mm size are used, and tapered into the canal with rods of increasing diameters. To impact the bone chips into the femoral canal a prosthesis dummy of the same dimensions of the definitive cemented stem is driven into the femur to ensure that the chips are very firmly impacted. Finally, a standard stem is cemented into the neo-medullary canal using bone cement.

To date several studies have shown favourable results with this technique, with some excellent long-term results reported in independent clinical centres worldwide.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B, Supple A:92–4.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 11_Supple_A | Pages 77 - 83
1 Nov 2013
Gehrke T Zahar A Kendoff D

Based on the first implementation of mixing antibiotics into bone cement in the 1970s, the Endo-Klinik has used one stage exchange for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in over 85% of cases. Looking carefully at current literature and guidelines for PJI treatment, there is no clear evidence that a two stage procedure has a higher success rate than a one-stage approach. A cemented one-stage exchange potentially offers certain advantages, mainly based on the need for only one operative procedure, reduced antibiotics and hospitalisation time. In order to fulfill a one-stage approach, there are obligatory pre-, peri- and post-operative details that need to be meticulously respected, and are described in detail. Essential pre-operative diagnostic testing is based on the joint aspiration with an exact identification of any bacteria. The presence of a positive bacterial culture and respective antibiogram are essential, to specify the antibiotics to be loaded to the bone cement, which allows a high local antibiotic elution directly at the surgical side. A specific antibiotic treatment plan is generated by a microbiologist. The surgical success relies on the complete removal of all pre-existing hardware, including cement and restrictors and an aggressive and complete debridement of any infected soft tissues and bone material. Post-operative systemic antibiotic administration is usually completed after only ten to 14 days.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B, Supple A:77–83.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 95-B, Issue 3 | Pages 391 - 395
1 Mar 2013
Klatte TO Junghans K Al-Khateeb H Rueger JM Gehrke T Kendoff D Neumann J

There have been only a few small studies of patients with an infected shoulder replacement treated with a single-stage exchange procedure. We retrospectively reviewed 35 patients (19 men and 16 women) with a peri-prosthetic infection of the shoulder who were treated in this way. A total of 26 were available for clinical examination; three had died, two were lost to follow-up and four patients had undergone revision surgery. The mean follow-up time was 4.7 years (1.1 to 13.25), with an infection-free survival of 94%.

The organisms most commonly isolated intra-operatively were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes; two patients developed a recurrent infection. Three different types of prosthesis were used: a hemiarthroplasty, a hemiarthroplasty with a bipolar head and reverse prosthesis. The mean Constant-Murley score at final follow-up was 43.3 (14 to 90) for patients with a hemiarthroplasty, 56 (40 to 88) for those with a hemiarthroplasty with a bipolar head and 61 (7 to 90) for those with a reverse prosthesis. The mean hospital stay was 10.6 days (5 to 29).

Single-stage exchange is a successful and practical treatment for patients with peri-prosthetic infection of the shoulder.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:391–5.