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The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and responsiveness to hip surgery of a four-point modified Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Questionnaire (mCCHQ) scoring tool in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV and V.


This was a population-based cohort study in children with CP from a national surveillance programme. Reliability was assessed from 20 caregivers who completed the mCCHQ questionnaire on two occasions three weeks apart. Test-retest reliability of the mCCHQ was calculated, and responsiveness before and after surgery for a displaced hip was evaluated in a cohort of children.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 104-B, Issue 5 | Pages 640 - 644
1 May 2022
Gaston MS Wordie SJ Wagner P Hägglund G Robb JE


The Uppföljningsprogram för cerebral pares (CPUP) Hip Score distinguishes between children with cerebral palsy (CP) at different levels of risk for displacement of the hip. The score was constructed using data from Swedish children with CP, but has not been confirmed in any other population. The aim of this study was to determine the calibration and discriminatory accuracy of this score in children with CP in Scotland.


This was a total population-based study of children registered with the Cerebral Palsy Integrated Pathway Scotland. Displacement of the hip was defined as a migration percentage (MP) of > 40%. Inclusion criteria were children in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III to V. The calibration slope was estimated and Kaplan-Meier curves produced for five strata of CPUP scores to compare the observed with the predicted risk of displacement of the hip at five years. For discriminatory accuracy, the time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was estimated. In order to analyze differences in the performance of the score between cohorts, score weights, and subsequently the AUC, were re-estimated using the variables of the original score: the child’s age at the first examination, GMFCS level, head shaft angle, and MP of the worst hip in a logistic regression with imputation of outcomes for those with incomplete follow-up.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 5 | Pages 951 - 957
1 May 2021
Ng N Nicholson JA Chen P Yapp LZ Gaston MS Robinson CM


The aim of this study was to define the complications and long-term outcome following adolescent mid-shaft clavicular fracture.


We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 677 adolescent fractures in 671 patients presenting to our region (age 13 to 17 years) over a ten-year period (2009 to 2019). Long-term patient-reported outcomes (abbreviated version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score and EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) quality of life score) were undertaken at a mean of 6.4 years (1.2 to 11.3) following injury in severely displaced mid-shaft fractures (Edinburgh 2B) and angulated mid-shaft fractures (Edinburgh 2A2) at a minimum of one year post-injury. The median patient age was 14.8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 14.0 to 15.7) and 89% were male (n = 594/671).

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 2 | Pages 411 - 414
1 Feb 2021
Wordie SJ Bugler KE Bessell PR Robb JE Gaston MS


The migration percentage (MP) is one criterion used for surgery in dislocated or displaced hips in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The MP at which a displaced hip can no longer return to normal is unclear. The aim of this paper was to identify the point of no return of the MP through a large population-based study.


All children registered on the Cerebral Palsy Integrated Pathway Scotland surveillance programme undergo regular pelvic radiographs. Any child who had a MP measuring over 35% since the programme’s inception in 2013, in at least one hip and at one timepoint, was identified. The national radiography database was then interrogated to identify all pelvic radiographs for each of these children from birth through to the date of analysis. A minimum of a further two available radiographs following the initial measurement of MP ≥ 35% was required for inclusion.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 102-B, Issue 3 | Pages 383 - 387
1 Mar 2020
Wordie SJ Robb JE Hägglund G Bugler KE Gaston MS


The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of hip displacement and dislocation in a total population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Scotland before and after the initiation of a hip surveillance programme.


A total of 2,155 children with CP are registered in the Cerebral Palsy Integrated Pathway Scotland (CPIPS) surveillance programme, which began in 2013. Physical examination and hip radiological data are collected according to nationally agreed protocols.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 100-B, Issue 5 | Pages 680 - 684
1 May 2018
Perry DC Wright JG Cooke S Roposch A Gaston MS Nicolaou N Theologis T


High-quality clinical research in children’s orthopaedic surgery has lagged behind other surgical subspecialties. This study used a consensus-based approach to identify research priorities for clinical trials in children’s orthopaedics.


A modified Delphi technique was used, which involved an initial scoping survey, a two-round Delphi process and an expert panel formed of members of the British Society of Children’s Orthopaedic Surgery. The survey was conducted amongst orthopaedic surgeons treating children in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1428 - 1434
1 Oct 2015
Clement ND Vats A Duckworth AD Gaston MS Murray AW

Controversy remains whether the contralateral hip should be fixed in patients presenting with unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). This retrospective study compares the outcomes and cost of those patients who had prophylactic fixation with those who did not.

Between January 2000 and December 2010 a total of 50 patients underwent unilateral fixation and 36 had prophylactic fixation of the contralateral hip. There were 54 males and 32 females with a mean age of 12.3 years (9 to 16). The rate of a subsequent slip without prophylactic fixation was 46%. The risk of complications was greater, the generic health measures (Short Form-12 physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p = 0.004) summary scores) were worse. Radiographic cam lesions in patients presenting with unilateral SCFE were only seen in patients who did not have prophylactic fixation. Furthermore, prophylactic fixation of the contralateral hip was found to be a cost-effective procedure, with a cost per quality adjusted life year gained of £1431 at the time of last follow-up.

Prophylactic fixation of the contralateral hip is a cost-effective operation that limits the morbidity from the complications of a further slip, and the diminished functional outcome associated with unilateral fixation.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1428–34.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 97-B, Issue 2 | Pages 240 - 245
1 Feb 2015
Ramaesh R Clement ND Rennie L Court-Brown C Gaston MS

Paediatric fractures are common and can cause significant morbidity. Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with an increased incidence of fractures in both adults and children, but little is known about the epidemiology of paediatric fractures. In this study we investigated the effect of social deprivation on the epidemiology of paediatric fractures.

We compiled a prospective database of all fractures in children aged < 16 years presenting to the study centre. Demographics, type of fracture, mode of injury and postcode were recorded. Socioeconomic status quintiles were assigned for each child using the Scottish Index for Multiple Deprivation (SIMD).

We found a correlation between increasing deprivation and the incidence of fractures (r = 1.00, p < 0.001). In the most deprived group the incidence was 2420/100 000/yr, which diminished to 1775/100 000/yr in the least deprived group.

The most deprived children were more likely to suffer a fracture as a result of a fall (odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, p < 0.0001), blunt trauma (OR = 1.5, p = 0.026) or a road traffic accident (OR = 2.7, p < 0.0001) than the least deprived.

These findings have important implications for public health and preventative measures.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:240–5.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1568 - 1573
1 Nov 2010
Krieg AH Lenze U Gaston MS Hefti F

We retrospectively evaluated 18 patients with a mean age of 37.3 years (14 to 72) who had undergone pelvic reconstruction stabilised with a non-vascularised fibular graft after resection of a primary bone tumour. The mean follow-up was 10.14 years (2.4 to 15.7). The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 76.5% (50% to 100%). Primary union was achieved in the majority of reconstructions within a mean of 22.9 weeks (7 to 60.6). The three patients with delayed or nonunion all received additional therapy (chemotherapy/radiation) (p = 0.0162). The complication rate was comparable to that of other techniques described in the literature.

Non-vascularised fibular transfer to the pelvis is a simpler, cheaper and quicker procedure than other currently described techniques. It is a biological reconstruction with good results and a relatively low donor site complication rate. However, adjuvant therapy can negatively affect the outcome of such grafts.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 89-B, Issue 12 | Pages 1553 - 1560
1 Dec 2007
Gaston MS Simpson AHRW

This paper reviews the current literature concerning the main clinical factors which can impair the healing of fractures and makes recommendations on avoiding or minimising these in order to optimise the outcome for patients. The clinical implications are described.