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The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 103-B, Issue 3 | Pages 492 - 499
1 Mar 2021
Garcia-Rey E Saldaña L Garcia-Cimbrelo E


Bone stock restoration of acetabular bone defects using impaction bone grafting (IBG) in total hip arthroplasty may facilitate future re-revision in the event of failure of the reconstruction. We hypothesized that the acetabular bone defect during re-revision surgery after IBG was smaller than during the previous revision surgery. The clinical and radiological results of re-revisions with repeated use of IBG were also analyzed.


In a series of 382 acetabular revisions using IBG and a cemented component, 45 hips (45 patients) that had failed due to aseptic loosening were re-revised between 1992 and 2016. Acetabular bone defects graded according to Paprosky during the first and the re-revision surgery were compared. Clinical and radiological findings were analyzed over time. Survival analysis was performed using a competing risk analysis.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 96-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1478 - 1484
1 Nov 2014
Garcia-Rey E Cruz-Pardos A Madero R

A total of 31 patients, (20 women, 11 men; mean age 62.5 years old; 23 to 81), who underwent conversion of a Girdlestone resection-arthroplasty (RA) to a total hip replacement (THR) were compared with 93 patients, (60 women, 33 men; mean age 63.4 years old; 20 to 89), who had revision THR surgery for aseptic loosening in a retrospective matched case-control study. Age, gender and the extent of the pre-operative bone defect were similar in all patients. Mean follow-up was 9.3 years (5 to 18).

Pre-operative function and range of movement were better in the control group (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively) and pre-operative leg length discrepancy (LLD) was greater in the RA group (p < 0.001). The post-operative clinical outcome was similar in both groups except for mean post-operative LLD, which was greater in the study group (p = 0.003). There was a significant interaction effect for LLD in the study group (p < 0.001). A two-way analysis of variance showed that clinical outcome depended on patient age (patients older than 70 years old had worse pre-operative pain, p = 0.017) or bone defect (patients with a large acetabular bone defect had higher LLD, p = 0.006, worse post-operative function p = 0.009 and range of movement, p = 0.005), irrespective of the group.

Despite major acetabular and femoral bone defects requiring complex surgical reconstruction techniques, THR after RA shows a clinical outcome similar to those obtained in aseptic revision surgery for hips with similar sized bone defects.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1478–84.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 93-B, Issue 11 | Pages 1457 - 1464
1 Nov 2011
Garcia-Cimbrelo E Garcia-Rey E Cruz-Pardos A

We report the results of 79 patients (81 hips) who underwent impaction grafting at revision hip replacement using the Exeter femoral stem. Their mean age was 64 years (31 to 83). According to the Endoklinik classification, 20 hips had a type 2 bone defect, 40 had type 3, and 21 had type 4. The mean follow-up for unrevised stems was 10.4 years (5 to 17).

There were 12 re-operations due to intra- and post-operative fractures, infection (one hip) and aseptic loosening (one hip). All re-operations affected type 3 (6 hips) and 4 (6 hips) bone defects. The survival rate for re-operation for any cause was 100% for type 2, 81.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 67.1 to 95.3) for type 3, and 70.8% (95% CI 51.1 to 90.5) for type 4 defects at 14 years. The survival rate with further revision for aseptic loosening as the end point was 98.6% (95% CI 95.8 to 100). The final clinical score was higher for patients with type 2 bone defects than type 4 regarding pain, function and range of movement. Limp was most frequent in the type 4 group (p < 0.001). The mean subsidence of the stem was 2.3 mm (sd 3.7) for hips with a type 2 defect, 4.3 mm (sd 7.2) for type 3 and 9.6 mm (sd 10.8) for type 4 (p = 0.022).

The impacted bone grafting technique has good clinical results in femoral revision. However, major bone defects affect clinical outcome and also result in more operative complications.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 92-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1363 - 1369
1 Oct 2010
Garcia-Cimbrelo E Garcia-Rey E Cruz-Pardos A Madero R

Revision surgery of the hip was performed on 114 hips using an extensively porous-coated femoral component. Of these, 95 hips (94 patients) had a mean follow-up of 10.2 years (5 to 17). No cortical struts were used and the cortical index and the femoral cortical width were measured at different levels.

There were two revisions for aseptic loosening. Survivorship at 12 years for all causes of failure was 96.9% (95% confidence interval 93.5 to 100) in the best-case scenario. Fibrous or unstable fixation was associated with major bone defects. The cortical index (p = 0.045) and the lateral cortical thickness (p = 0.008) decreased at the proximal level over time while the medial cortex increased (p = 0.001) at the proximal and distal levels. An increase in the proximal medial cortex was found in patients with an extended transtrochanteric osteotomy (p = 0.026) and in those with components shorter than 25 cm (p = 0.008).

The use of the extensively porous-coated femoral component can provide a solution for difficult cases in revision surgery. Radiological bony ingrowth is common. Although without clinical relevance at the end of follow-up, the thickness of the medial femoral cortex often increased while that of the lateral cortex decreased. In cases in which a shorter component was used and in those undertaken using an extended trochanteric osteotomy, there was a greater increase in thickness of the femoral cortex over time.

The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Volume
Vol. 82-B, Issue 1 | Pages 108 - 115
1 Jan 2000
Garcia-Cimbrelo E Diaz-Martin A Madero R Munuera L

Between 1972 and 1990, we performed 168 primary low-friction arthroplasties in 125 patients with acetabular protrusion. Twelve hips were lost to follow-up within eight years and eight which became infected were excluded from the final study. Of the 148 hips remaining, 62 with a mild protrusion were classified as group 1, 54 with moderate or severe protrusion as group 2 and, after 1985, 32 with moderate and severe protrusion which required bone grafts as group 3. The mean follow-up was 18.3 years (3 to 24) for group 1, 17.4 years (8 to 22) for group 2 and ten years (8 to 13) for group 3.

There were 31 revisions of the cup, 12 in group 1 and 19 in group 2. According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis the overall rates at 20 years were 21 ± 10.79% in group 1 and 37 ± 11.90% in group 2. There have been 43 radiological loosenings: 22 in group 1, 21 in group 2 and none so far in group 3, at ten years. The overall loosening rates at 20 years were 42 ± 14.76% in group 1 and 49 ± 19.50% in group 2. The grafts were well incorporated in all group-3 hips, and the bone structure appeared normal after one year.

The distance between the centre of the head of the femoral prosthesis and the approximate true centre of the femoral head was less in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.01). According to the Cox proportional-hazards regression this was the single most important factor in loosening of the cup (odds ratio 1.11; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.18/mm). Better results were obtained in moderate and severe protrusions reconstructed with bone grafting than in hips with mild protrusion which were not grafted.