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Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 5, Issue 2 | Pages 94 - 100
5 Feb 2024
Mancino F Kayani B Gabr A Fontalis A Plastow R Haddad FS

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common and debilitating knee injuries in professional athletes with an incidence in females up to eight-times higher than their male counterparts. ACL injuries can be career-threatening and are associated with increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis in future life. The increased risk of ACL injury in females has been attributed to various anatomical, developmental, neuromuscular, and hormonal factors. Anatomical and hormonal factors have been identified and investigated as significant contributors including osseous anatomy, ligament laxity, and hamstring muscular recruitment. Postural stability and impact absorption are associated with the stabilizing effort and stress on the ACL during sport activity, increasing the risk of noncontact pivot injury. Female patients have smaller diameter hamstring autografts than males, which may predispose to increased risk of re-rupture following ACL reconstruction and to an increased risk of chondral and meniscal injuries. The addition of an extra-articular tenodesis can reduce the risk of failure; therefore, it should routinely be considered in young elite athletes. Prevention programs target key aspects of training including plyometrics, strengthening, balance, endurance and stability, and neuromuscular training, reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes by up to 90%. Sex disparities in access to training facilities may also play an important role in the risk of ACL injuries between males and females. Similarly, football boots, pitches quality, and football size and weight should be considered and tailored around females’ characteristics. Finally, high levels of personal and sport-related stress have been shown to increase the risk of ACL injury which may be related to alterations in attention and coordination, together with increased muscular tension, and compromise the return to sport after ACL injury. Further investigations are still necessary to better understand and address the risk factors involved in ACL injuries in female athletes.

Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2024;5(2):94–100.

Bone & Joint Open
Vol. 4, Issue 10 | Pages 791 - 800
19 Oct 2023
Fontalis A Raj RD Haddad IC Donovan C Plastow R Oussedik S Gabr A Haddad FS


In-hospital length of stay (LOS) and discharge dispositions following arthroplasty could act as surrogate measures for improvement in patient pathways, and have major cost saving implications for healthcare providers. With the ever-growing adoption of robotic technology in arthroplasty, it is imperative to evaluate its impact on LOS. The objectives of this study were to compare LOS and discharge dispositions following robotic arm-assisted total knee arthroplasty (RO TKA) and unicompartmental arthroplasty (RO UKA) versus conventional technique (CO TKA and UKA).


This large-scale, single-institution study included patients of any age undergoing primary TKA (n = 1,375) or UKA (n = 337) for any cause between May 2019 and January 2023. Data extracted included patient demographics, LOS, need for post anaesthesia care unit (PACU) admission, anaesthesia type, readmission within 30 days, and discharge dispositions. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were also employed to identify factors and patient characteristics related to delayed discharge.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 10 | Pages 1033 - 1037
1 Oct 2023
Mancino F Gabr A Plastow R Haddad FS

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is frequently injured in elite athletes, with females up to eight times more likely to suffer an ACL tear than males. Biomechanical and hormonal factors have been thoroughly investigated; however, there remain unknown factors that need investigation. The mechanism of injury differs between males and females, and anatomical differences contribute significantly to the increased risk in females. Hormonal factors, both endogenous and exogenous, play a role in ACL laxity and may modify the risk of injury. However, data are still limited, and research involving oral contraceptives is potentially associated with methodological and ethical problems. Such characteristics can also influence the outcome after ACL reconstruction, with higher failure rates in females linked to a smaller diameter of the graft, especially in athletes aged < 21 years. The addition of a lateral extra-articular tenodesis can improve the outcomes after ACL reconstruction and reduce the risk of failure, and it should be routinely considered in young elite athletes. Sex-specific environmental differences can also contribute to the increased risk of injury, with more limited access to and availablility of advanced training facilities for female athletes. In addition, football kits are designed for male players, and increased attention should be focused on improving the quality of pitches, as female leagues usually play the day after male leagues. The kit, including boots, the length of studs, and the footballs themselves, should be tailored to the needs and body shapes of female athletes. Specific physiotherapy programmes and training protocols have yielded remarkable results in reducing the risk of injury, and these should be extended to school-age athletes. Finally, psychological factors should not be overlooked, with females’ greater fear of re-injury and lack of confidence in their knee compromising their return to sport after ACL injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors should be recognized and addressed to optimize the training programmes which are designed to prevent injury, and improve our understanding of these injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(10):1033–1037.

Bone & Joint Research
Vol. 12, Issue 7 | Pages 447 - 454
10 Jul 2023
Lisacek-Kiosoglous AB Powling AS Fontalis A Gabr A Mazomenos E Haddad FS

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly growing across many domains, of which the medical field is no exception. AI is an umbrella term defining the practical application of algorithms to generate useful output, without the need of human cognition. Owing to the expanding volume of patient information collected, known as ‘big data’, AI is showing promise as a useful tool in healthcare research and across all aspects of patient care pathways. Practical applications in orthopaedic surgery include: diagnostics, such as fracture recognition and tumour detection; predictive models of clinical and patient-reported outcome measures, such as calculating mortality rates and length of hospital stay; and real-time rehabilitation monitoring and surgical training. However, clinicians should remain cognizant of AI’s limitations, as the development of robust reporting and validation frameworks is of paramount importance to prevent avoidable errors and biases. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive understanding of AI and its subfields, as well as to delineate its existing clinical applications in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Furthermore, this narrative review expands upon the limitations of AI and future direction.

Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2023;12(7):447–454.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 105-B, Issue 7 | Pages 723 - 728
1 Jul 2023
Raj RD Fontalis A Grandhi TSP Kim WJ Gabr A Haddad FS

There is a disparity in sport-related injuries between sexes, with females sustaining non-contact musculoskeletal injuries at a higher rate. Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are between two and eight times more common than in males, and females also have a higher incidence of ankle sprains, patellofemoral pain, and bone stress injuries. The sequelae of such injuries can be devastating to an athlete, resulting in time out of sport, surgery, and the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to identify the causes of this disparity and introduce prevention programmes to reduce the incidence of these injuries. A natural difference reflects the effect of reproductive hormones in females, which have receptors in certain musculoskeletal tissues. Relaxin increases ligamentous laxity. Oestrogen decreases the synthesis of collagen and progesterone does the opposite. Insufficient diet and intensive training can lead to menstrual irregularities, which are common in female athletes and result in injury, whereas oral contraception may have a protective effect against certain injuries. It is important for coaches, physiotherapists, nutritionists, doctors, and athletes to be aware of these issues and to implement preventive measures. This annotation explores the relationship between the menstrual cycle and orthopaedic sports injuries in pre-menopausal females, and proposes recommendations to mitigate the risk of sustaining these injuries.

Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2023;105-B(7):723–728.


The aim of this study was to compare the preinjury functional scores with the postinjury preoperative score and postoperative outcome scores following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery (ACLR).


We performed a prospective study on patients who underwent primary ACLR by a single surgeon at a single centre between October 2010 and January 2018. Preoperative preinjury scores were collected at time of first assessment after the index injury. Preoperative (pre- and post-injury), one-year, and two-year postoperative functional outcomes were assessed by using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm Knee Score, and Tegner Activity Scale.

The Bone & Joint Journal
Vol. 99-B, Issue 6 | Pages 774 - 778
1 Jun 2017
Agolley D Gabr A Benjamin-Laing H Haddad FS


The aim of this study was to report the outcome of the non-operative treatment of high-grade posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries, particularly Hughston grade III injuries, which have not previously been described.

Patients and Methods

This was a prospective study involving 46 consecutive patients who were athletes with MRI-confirmed isolated PCL injuries presenting within four weeks of injury. All had Hughston grade II (25 athletes) or III (21 athletes) injuries. Our non-operative treatment regimen involved initial bracing, followed by an individualised rehabilitation programme determined by the symptoms and physical signs. The patients were reviewed until they had returned to sports-specific training, and were reviewed again at a mean of 5.2 years (3 to 9).